PFAS in Drinking Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 4, 2022 1:05:00 PM

If you’ve been following the news, you know that there’s a growing problem with PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances). These man-made chemicals are found in everything from clothing to food packaging. While they are inexpensive and stable in products, some of these substances tend to break down into other substances, such as PFAS-methyltetrahydrofuran. PFASs have been discovered in drinking water across the country, including in parts of the country with very high water tables. As a result, it’s important to learn how to remove contaminants from your drinking water. What should you do if you suspect that there’s a problem with your water? Check the source of the water, test it, and treat it if necessary.

Follow these steps to remove contaminants from your drinking water.

Test Your Water

Although it’s important to know how to remove contaminants in general, it’s even more important to know how to test your water for contamination. A water test kit can help you determine whether there are contaminants in your water and whether they are at a dangerous level. You can purchase water test kits at most grocery stores, hardware stores, and online retailers. Generally, these kits come with the standard set of tests for a home water filtration system, but they also often include tests for certain contaminants. Use these tests to determine whether your water is safe to drink or not. If your water contains contaminants, you need to remove them from your water source. This can be done by digging a deeper well, installing a water filtration system, or getting a water purification system. If your water does not contain contaminants, you don’t need to do anything except continue drinking your water.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, Chemical Odor, Safe drinking water, RO system, filters, Filter Media, residential well water systems, DeLoach Industries, Inc., backwash, Carbon Filter, Micron Filter, Drinking Water, Clean Water, Contaminated Water, Water Source, Sediment Filter, PFA's, Water Test, Water Test Kit

What Is Water Turbidity?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Mar 18, 2022 1:05:00 PM

Water turbidity refers to how clear or translucent the water is when examining or testing it for any given use. Water turbidity can impact food and beverage, municipal, industrial, and aquaculture operations. Turbidity is caused by suspended or dissolved particles in the water that scatter light which causes the water to appear cloudy or even murky.

Different types of particles can cause turbidity and they include sediments such as silts and clay, very fine inorganic or organic matter, algae, or soluble colored organic compounds, and microscopic organisms. Turbidity is measured in a value referred to as NTU which means Nephelometric Turbidity Unit. The EPA requires in the USA a turbidity level no higher than 0.3 NTU and if a member for the partnership of safe drinking water then the level must not exceed 0.1 NTU.

High turbidity can create habitats for other harmful elements such as bacteria or metals that can accumulate onto the particles. This increases the health risk for a potable water system. In aquaculture operations increased turbidity from silts and sediments can be harmful and detrimental to marine life so it must be removed to safe levels. For the food and beverage industry, the impact of high turbidity can be both a safety concern as well as a visual and noticeable quality concern because if the turbidity is high it can alter the physical look of the final product for example a distillery.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, Safe drinking water, De-Aeration, decarbonator, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Deagasification, particulate matter, filters, Sand filters, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, DeLoach Industries, Inc., turbidity

How to Remove PFA'S from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 22, 2022 1:02:58 PM

The EPA and other world health organizations have recognized the dangers and health impacts of being exposed to PFAS's. Federal and State regulators are adopting new guidelines and laws for the treatment and removal of PFAS's. Often PFAS's within potable drinking water systems or groundwater contaminated with one of the various types of PFAS's. There are over 4700 different variations of PFAS's that have variations and at least three polyfluorinated carbon atoms.


There are well over 10,000 types of PFAS's that get introduced into products that can and have impacted the drinking water in the USA and other countries. 


So what are PFAS's?


PFAS's are fluorinated substances that include at least one fully fluorinated methyl or methylene carbon atom, and they do not contain ( H/Cl/Br/I atoms). However, any chemical with at least a per fluorinated (CF3) or a per fluorinated (–CF2–) is a PFAS. There are a few exceptions. Different subgroup categories include surfactants, including per fluorosulfonic acids, perfluorooctane sulfonic, perfluorocarboxylic, and perfluorooctanoic acids. Often referred to as PFOS's and PFOA's.


Diagram of a skeletal structure of a PFOS and space-filled model.

The following is a diagram illustrating the potential health impacts from PFAS's, PFOS's and PFOA's obtained from Wikipedia.


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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, NSF/ANSI 61, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, decarbonator, degasifier, H2S Degasifier, degassed water, ansi61, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, CO2 in water, Deagasification, hydrogen ion, Sand filters, green sand, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Ion exchange, cations, anions

What is Water Demineralization?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jan 27, 2022 12:54:16 PM

Water demineralization is also referred to as deionization and as a process known as “Ion Exchange”. In simple terms, water demineralization is “Water Purification”. The process involves removing dissolved ionic mineral solids from a feed-water process typically for “Industrial” water applications but can also be utilized to remove dissolved solids from a water process for “Aquaculture”, “Food and Beverage” and the “Municipal” markets.

Why is demineralization utilized? Well, it can remove dissolved solids down to near distilled water quality at a much lower capital and operational cost than other treatment processes such as membrane softening (Reverse Osmosis). Demineralization applies the science known as “Ion Exchange” that attracts negative and positive charged ions and allows either to attached themselves to an opposing ion depending on their respective current negative or positive charge during what is known as a resin cycle. We will explore and go into more specific details on the science of the ion exchange process in other technical articles. Water that has dissolved salts and minerals have ions and these ions are either negatively charged ions known as “Anions” or positively charged ions known as “Cations”. In order to treat the water and remove these contaminants the ions in the water are attracted to counter-ions which are ions that have an opposing charge. In a demineralization treatment process, there are pressure vessels that hold resin beads which are typically made of plastic. The beads are made from a plastic material that has an ionic functional group that allows them to hold and maintain an electrostatic electrical charge. Some of these resins groups are negatively charged and they are referred to as “Anion” resins while others hold a positive charge and are called “Cations” resins.

There are different applications to apply Ion exchange technologies and that is why you will often hear the different terminology interchanged like deionization and demineralization. The raw water quality and the specific application will dictate the type of ion exchange process that will be needed. As an example, if the water contains a high level of hardness the water will most likely contain Ca2+ or Mg2+ dissolved solids possessing a positive charge. To replace these hard ions it is typical to utilize a resin bed with a salt ion like Na+. As the water passes over the resin bead material within the pressure vessel the hard ions are replaced with the salt ion and therefore all of the hardness within the water is removed. However, the water will now contain a higher concentration of sodium ions and this must be considered during the evaluation and selection process of the type of resin material to utilize for the specific application. If the water application requires high purity and the removal of as many solids as possible then the term or process selected is referred to as demineralization.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), media packing, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, decarbonator, degasifier, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Aquaculture, degassed water, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, Deagasification, decarbonation of water, hydrogen ion, particulate matter, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, automated control systems, Ion exchange, cations, anions

Benefits of Pressure Filters for Industrial Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jan 4, 2022 1:00:00 PM

Industrial water systems often use water filters to reduce the level of solids in the water coming from industrial, semiconductor, manufacturing, refining, or even processes like oil and natural gas production. The wastewater may contain chemicals that are harmful to humans, plants, or animals. There are three types of filters that are commonly used in industrial settings: Gravity filters, pressure filters, and constructed wetlands. Pressure filters have two variations which include multimedia and higher-pressure micron or cartridge filters. Constructed wetland or natural filters are not often utilized in industrial applications based upon the requirements to obtain environmental permits and to safeguard the ecosystem.


There are many benefits to pressure filtering industrial wastewater. Pressure filters can remove particles down to 0.3 microns in size, they don't clog up as easily as other filter types, and it's much faster than other types of filtration methods. Pressure filtering is also very cost-effective because it uses less energy than other methods do. If you're looking for a high-quality industrial water filter, look no further!


Pressure Filters  (Multimedia type) are often used in industrial settings to remove particles down to 15 microns in size. They're also very cost-effective due to the amount of energy they use; pressure filter utilize much less energy than other filtration methods. Pressure filters can include multimedia which is a mixture of gravel and sand, multimedia that combines gravel, sand, and anthracite, or multimedia that combines gravel, sand, greensand, and anthracite. The variations are dependent on the applications and the need.

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Topics: water quality, water treatment, water plant, media packing, ION Exchange Resin, RO system, Pressure filter, Sand filters, Filter Media, industrial facilities, green sand, Gravity Filters, Constructed Wetlands

Technology to Remove Per- & Polyfluorinated Substances

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Dec 14, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Per-and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) have been used for decades in many consumer products, and they are man-made and have a high residual time in the environment. These chemicals are used for various purposes, including nonstick surfaces, heat protection of circuits, water resistance, fighting fire as they are utilized in fire depression foam, and many other industrial applications. The difficult thing about PFAS is that the very reason they work so well on so many manufactured products is why they are so challenging to get rid of or treat once they have entered the environment or water supply. PFAS are being more and more regulated, and requirements are being put in place by many states and agencies to require the treatment and removal of PFAS and safeguard and protect drinking water.

PFAS are soluble in water, and they are not a volatile organic chemical (VOC), so traditional treatment methods such as utilizing an air stripping tower or degasification system are not effective methods to remove PFAS. One of the first technologies to remove PFAS from drinking water and the environment is activated carbon absorption. In recent years, utilizing ion exchange resins has proven effective and is gaining popularity for the treatment method. Ion exchange resins attach and bond with the PFAS and remove it effectively from the water. Some chemicals tested and studied with success include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS). In addition to these technologies, reverse osmosis utilizing high-pressure membranes has an 80-90% effective rate and has proven to be technically efficient in removing PFAS. An R.O. process produces a concentrated waste stream.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, ION Exchange Resin, wastewater, RO system, Deagasification

Pressure Filters

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Dec 3, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In water treatment, it is often required to remove small particulate matter from the raw water. One of the most cost-effective ways to accomplish this is with a pressure filter. Sometimes referred to as “sand filters,” a pressure filter consists of a rigid filter vessel capable of withstanding internal pressure, combined with pipework to distribute and collect water and one or multiple types of filter media. Pressure filters, commonly used in municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, and swimming pools. Typical pressure filter construction is shown below:

At the top of the filter vessel, a distributor is used to break up and distribute the water flow so that there are no concentrated flow jets that stir up the media bed. Inflow distributors are usually oriented to direct flow at the top of the vessel to disperse the flow further. Below the distributor is the primary filter bed. The filter bed contains fine-grained media, most often sand, including crushed anthracite coal, activated charcoal, garnet, or other granular bulk products. The media bed is the thickest layer in the filter vessel and is the region that does the actual filtering of the water or other fluid. Below the media bed will be one or more support layers. These will usually be larger-sized gravel that is chosen to support the filter bed while allowing high flow through the support layer and into the outflow header. The outflow header can take several forms but is often composed of a large central pipe with multiple smaller pipes or “laterals” attached. The laterals are slotted or perforated. This allows the pressurized water to flow into the laterals and out through the outflow header into the downstream components of the water treatment system.

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Topics: particulate matter, filters, Pressure filter, Sand filters, Filter Media, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., backwash, automated control systems, actuated valves, pump controls

Understanding Pipe Sizing

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Nov 5, 2021 1:00:00 PM

One issue that I run into relatively often with new technicians, or with some non-technical project managers is confusion over pipe sizing.  A typical example looks like this: I ask a new technician-in-training to get me a count of 1-inch pipe that we have in storage. I take the info, and then later find out that what the trainee inventoried was the 3/4-inch pipe. The reason for this confusion lies in the way that pipe sizes are named. The 1-inch, 3-inch, 6-inch etc. pipe designations are closer to names than sizes. This is because pipe sizing goes by a nominal size standard which is somewhat non-intuitive.

For many people, if they are asked to locate pipe of a given size, 3-1/2” for example, they will take a tape measure and instinctually measure the outside diameter of the pipe, which will lead them to an incorrect identification. This has to do with the sizing conventions for pipes. Pipes are sized using a nominal pipe size (NPS) designation, and a pipe schedule (SCH) to fully define the size. The nominal size refers only to the approximate inside diameter, and the schedule refers to the wall thickness of the pipe. Because of this, the inner and outer dimensions from a pipe do not directly align with the “name” of the pipe size

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Topics: PVC, Pipe Size, Schedule 40, Schedule 80

Chemical Compatibility

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Oct 29, 2021 1:01:00 PM

In process control systems, it is often required to handle fluids that have a harsh chemical nature. In these cases, it is necessary to be aware of material chemical compatibility. Chemical compatibility is a general term referring to the way a specific chemical interacts with a specific material. This information is taken into consideration when selecting materials of construction for tanks, valves, pipework, tubing, and other devices that may encounter harsh chemicals. Common chemical types that are used in process systems are acids, bases, corrosives and oxidizers, and hydrocarbons. Typical chemical resistant materials include natural and synthetic rubbers, vinyl polymers, fluoropolymers, and stainless steel. In order to determine which materials are compatible with certain chemicals, a chemical compatibility chart is often used. A chemical compatibility chart contains tabulated data about how a given material interacts with a given chemical.

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, caustic, Decarbonation, decarbonator, degasifier, Deagasification

Using Aeration To Remove Iron from Water!

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 22, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Converting Ferrous (Fe+2) (soluble) iron to Ferric (Fe+3) (Particulate/Solid form).

The iron must first be exposed to air or another form of an oxidizing agent. Aeration is the most cost-effective method to oxidize ferrous iron for its removal from water. In many areas around the globe, municipal and industrial operations have the need to remove naturally occurring iron (Fe) from the water to both prevent damage to other equipment as well as to improve water quality. To remove iron from the water it first must be oxidized using the most widely accepted and cost-effective method called aeration. The aeration process changes the iron from its Ferrous (Fe+2) state (soluble) to ferric (Fe+3) a colloidal participate. Did you know that Iron occurs naturally and is found in the earth’s crust? It occurs in both groundwater as well as surface waters and is not known to cause any harmful effects on humans or animals.

Iron does cause problems though for municipal facilities and their customers by impacting laundry operations, causing stains on buildings, on plumbing fixtures. Iron also promotes and facilitates the growth of iron bacteria in water that creates a problem for distribution lines and piping systems. Once the lines become blocked this impacts the ability to distribute water to the customer. The presence of iron bacteria also becomes detectible even at low concentrations and impacts the taste of the water. The U.S Public Health Service Drinking Water Standard set a recommend maximum level of 0.3 mg/L in public water supplies.

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Topics: aeration, Ferrous Iron, Iron

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