DELOACH BLOG

Using Aeration To Remove Iron from Water!

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 22, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Converting Ferrous (Fe+2) (soluble) iron to Ferric (Fe+3) (Particulate/Solid form).

The iron must first be exposed to air or another form of an oxidizing agent. Aeration is the most cost-effective method to oxidize ferrous iron for its removal from water. In many areas around the globe, municipal and industrial operations have the need to remove naturally occurring iron (Fe) from the water to both prevent damage to other equipment as well as to improve water quality. To remove iron from the water it first must be oxidized using the most widely accepted and cost-effective method called aeration. The aeration process changes the iron from its Ferrous (Fe+2) state (soluble) to ferric (Fe+3) a colloidal participate. Did you know that Iron occurs naturally and is found in the earth’s crust? It occurs in both groundwater as well as surface waters and is not known to cause any harmful effects on humans or animals.

Iron does cause problems though for municipal facilities and their customers by impacting laundry operations, causing stains on buildings, on plumbing fixtures. Iron also promotes and facilitates the growth of iron bacteria in water that creates a problem for distribution lines and piping systems. Once the lines become blocked this impacts the ability to distribute water to the customer. The presence of iron bacteria also becomes detectible even at low concentrations and impacts the taste of the water. The U.S Public Health Service Drinking Water Standard set a recommend maximum level of 0.3 mg/L in public water supplies.

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Topics: aeration, Ferrous Iron, Iron

Flow Measurement in Water Systems

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Sep 28, 2021 11:45:00 AM

In water treatment systems it is often important to measure the rate at which water is flowing through the system. Data from flow measurement devices can be used to control chemical dosing, set pump speeds, control filter loading rates, inform maintenance programs, and other tasks necessary for operation of a water treatment facility or on key components such as Degasification and Decarbonation systems or Biological Odor Control Systems. As with most types of instrumentation, there is an array of technologies that can be used for the task, each one with various strengths and optimal applications. For modern electronically controlled systems, the most common types of flow sensors used are axial turbine flowmeters, paddlewheel flowmeters, differential pressure / orifice plate flow transducers, and magnetic flowmeters. This article will briefly discuss the technology and features of each of these types.

A turbine flow meter,

consists of a tube that contains supports to hold a multi-bladed metal turbine in the center. The turbine is designed to have close clearance to the walls of the tubing such that nearly all of the water is made to flow through the turbine blades as it travels through the pipe. The turbine is supported on finely finished bearings so that the turbine will spin freely even under very low flows. As the turbine spins, a magnetic pickup located outside of the flowmeter housing is used to sense the tips of the turbine blade spinning past the pickup. An amplifier/transmitter is then used to amplify the pulses and either transmit them directly or convert the pulse frequency into an analog signal that is then sent to a programmable controller for further use elsewhere in the system. One advantage of a turbine flowmeter is that the electronics are separated from the fluid path. The magnetic pickup is the only electronic component, and it is installed outside of the turbine housing, reading the presence of the turbine blade tips through the wall of the sensor body. In clean water applications, this can be advantageous because the magnetic pickup can be replaced if needed without removing the turbine from service. However, the turbine itself covers most of the pipe area and creates back-pressure in the system, requiring increased pumping energy to move a given amount of water. In Industrial Water Treatment or Filtration Treatment,  turbines can also easily become fouled or jammed if they are used to measure water or other fluids with entrained solids, algae or bacteria cultures which cause significant accumulation, or corrosive chemical components that can degrade the turbine bearings.

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Variable Frequency Drives – A Smart Choice for Control and Efficiency

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Sep 14, 2021 8:36:06 AM

In an industrial environment,

electric motors are used for a variety of applications. These often include pumping water or other fluids, transporting material on conveyors or lifts, or providing motive force to moving parts of a mechanical device. The electric motor dominates the field whenever something needs to move. Regardless of the end use, all these motors will have one thing in common, a motor controller.

A motor controller is a device with the means to turn the motor on and off, provide circuit protection, and serve as a disconnecting means to render the circuit safe during maintenance. Traditionally, this is done with a direct-on-line (DOL) motor starter. A DOL starter installation consists of a branch breaker combined with a DOL motor starter and overload module. In a typical DOL motor starter installation, the branch breaker will serve as short circuit protection, as well as a means of electrical disconnect. The motor starter unit is essentially a large relay with a magnetic coil and high-power contacts held apart by springs. When the motor is called to run, the magnetic coil is energized, pulling in the contacts and bridging the line side to the load side terminals, allowing power to flow. Once the motor starter has contact, electrical power flows out through an overload disconnect module, and then to the electric motor. The DOL motor starter is a well proven design that is familiar to almost anyone in the industrial space and is still what is found in a majority of applications.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water treatment, water plant, motors, pumps

Ph Probes and the Importance of Periodic Re-Calibration

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Aug 25, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In many water treatment and chemical processes,

it is a requirement to keep track of the pH of the water or product stream. In DeLoach Industries equipment such as degasification systems, or odor control scrubbers, pH measurement is critical to control the chemical reactions happening within the treatment system. PH is an indication of the acidic vs alkaline nature of a fluid. An acidic fluid will have a greater concentration of H+ hydrogen ions, while an alkaline fluid will have a greater concentration of OH- hydroxide ions. This electrochemical nature is used in the construction, reading, and maintenance of electronic pH probes.

PH probes are generally glass,

and will contain a reference element, and a sensing element. When the pH probe is immersed in the fluid to be measured, the electrical potential difference between the sensing element and the reference element is amplified by electronics, and the resulting voltage is used in a calculation to determine pH from differential electron potential. As a pH probe remains in service, ion exchange will slowly change the electrical potential of the sensing element, the reference element, or both. This happens because the hydrogen ions are small enough to travel through the glass sensor body and cause reference potential shift over time. This is a normal behavior for all pH probes and is the reason why pH probes must be periodically calibrated.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide, gases, RO system, Aqua Farming

Decarbonation the Removal of CO2 from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation, the removal of CO2 from water

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution

in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, removal of CO2 from water

Biological Odor Control Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 4, 2021 9:26:05 AM

A BIOLOGICAL ODOR CONTROL SCRUBBER IS JUST ONE OF MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

To treat air emissions that may contain harmful gases. This class of equipment commonly falls into a category referred to as “Odor Control Scrubbers” and they are utilized to remove dangerous or noxious odors from an air stream. The Biological Odor Control System has gain popularity among many end users such as municipal operators due to the reduced operating cost and more simplistic operating requirements. A typical chemical odor control scrubber often requires two or more chemical additives, and more instrumentation is required to maintain system performance. With the additional chemicals required and instrumentation comes the need for more hands-on maintenance, calibration, and safety requirements which increases the operating costs and workload of the operator.

A Biological Odor Control System relies on active bacteria cultures that recirculate within a water stream and flow across a random packed media bed that is beneficial to the bacteria culture. During the process of metabolizing harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) the biological odor control system requires only the addition of Caustic to control and balance the pH and additional water makeup to replace what has been consumed through evaporation or during the blow down process to eliminate solids. There are several different types of odor control and chemical wet scrubbers on the market today and each provide a solution for the treatment of noxious or corrosive gases and odors in the industry.  And even though Biological scrubbers are commonly utilized in municipal applications for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases that were produced by a water or wastewater treatment process there are times when a Biological Scrubber does not provide the best solution for treatment. When there are wide or rapidly changing concentration in the ppm (parts per million) level than a Biological Scrubber will have difficulties balancing and acclimating fast enough to prevent break through.  As an example, In water treatment there is a treatment process referred to as “degasification” which strips the hydrogen sulfide gas from the water and then the concentrated H2S gas is exhausted from the tower through an exhaust port.  When the concentration rises above 1 ppm for hydrogen sulfide gas then the levels become both noxious to the surroundings as well as corrosive. Many times, the levels range from 3-7 PPM in concentration with Hydrogen Sulfide and pose a serious health threat, noxious odor, and corrosive environment demanding capture and treatment. When utilizing an Odor Control Scrubber such as a Biological Scrubber the gases are pulled or pushed through an air duct system that is connected to the Biological Scrubber inlet or suction side of the blower. The same process is utilized when treating Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gases that were captured at a wastewater treatment process. These gases may have been generated from a source such as the wastewater treatment plant, lift station or master head-works facility. When captured the gases are also conveyed in a similar manner to the Biological Odor Control Tower for treatment.

So how does a Biological Scrubber work?

A Biological Odor Control Scrubber is in fact a eco system all to itself. The biological scrubber relies upon an initial seeding of tiny microorganisms (bacteria) which attach themselves to the internal media substrate or packing providing both a place to attach and to breed and multiply all the time coming in direct contact with the contaminated air. The bacteria are utilized to breakdown and digest contaminants, and it feeds on the contaminants as a food source which allows it to not only live but continue to grow and multiply.

When utilizing a Biological Odor Scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment and removal the by-product that is produced during the reaction is a waste in the form of Sulphuric Acid which is produced as the Sulphur is consumed as a food source. The Sulphuric acid waste lowers the pH of the recirculating water and can create an unhealthy 

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, caustic, wastewater, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

Water Degasification in Pisciculture

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 11, 2020 9:36:29 AM

The need to remove harmful elements from water such as Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide

from water in the pisciculture and aquaculture market is extremely important. In order to achieve maximum results, the industry utilizes a treatment technology called “Degasificationand controls the pH precisely to maximize results. When utilizing equipment such as the DeLoach Industries degasification systems the hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide levels can be removed to 99.999% ug/l.

pH control with water degasification in water treatment is very important for the aquaculture and the pisciculture market. In addition, there are a host of other organic and inorganic elements found in water both naturally occurring and manmade that require removal during some part of the water treatment process and pH plays a significant role on the effectiveness of the treatment process.

Every application of degasification depends on pH adjustment to maximize results. As an example, the treatment of water may require the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to protect the species during the growth period. Hydrogen sulfide can be removed either as a “free” gas or requires the conversion of sulfides into (H2S) as a gas they you will quite often also see the need to adjust pH of the water chemistry to maximize both the removal and the conversion to increase the efficiency of the equipment being utilized to remove the hydrogen sulfide such as a degasification tower or commonly called a degasifier.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture

Relationship of Water Degasification and Decarbonation and pH

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 3, 2020 1:01:00 PM

The need for pH control with water degasification and decarbonation in water treatment includes almost every industry and includes;

aquaculture, food and beverage, industrial, municipal, and even pisciculture.  In some water treatment applications, there are harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) being removed while in other applications Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or even a combination of both. In addition, there are a host of other organic and inorganic elements found in water both naturally occurring and manmade that require removal during some part of the water treatment process.  

In almost every application of Degasification of Decarbonation you will hear or see the term pH used either by need or by result.  If as an example the water treatment application is requiring the removal of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) be removed either as a “free” gas or requires the conversion of Sulfides into (H2S) as a gas they you will quite often also see the need to adjust pH of the water chemistry to maximize both the removal and the conversion to increase the efficiency of the equipment being utilized to remove the Hydrogen Sulfide such as a Degasification Tower or commonly called a Degasifier.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture

Degasification for Pisciculture

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 23, 2019 11:03:53 AM

To enhance and balance the water quality

in aquaculture and pisciculture operations, the industry is recognizing the benefits from utilizing a type of water treatment called “Forced Draft Degasification” to remove CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) gases and oxidize other elements such as Iron or Magnesium.

Removing these elements from the water process improves the quality of the water and aids in the balancing of the pH without the need for additional chemicals. This also reduces the risk of unnecessary and preventable loss of life to your aqua farming  project.  Keeping the ph at the proper level will enable a good healthy environment and will prevent further problems that may occur due to the ph is not kept in a stable state.

Not all degasification towers are equal!

The market has seen an influx of low efficiency performance systems which why they may offer a low capital entry point for a customer they fall short on providing the overall quality enhancements a properly design degasification tower provides. Utilizing low efficient perforated trays with natural updraft will result in low removal efficiencies of CO2 and H2S gases.

There are additional benefits that are achieved when a properly designed and sized degasification tower is selected for aquaculture water enhancement which include the ability to remove excess heat from the water and stabilize a temperature from the effluent of the tower. In order for your system to maintain its efficiency it is important to design the proper tower for your needs. In addition, the oxidation of iron with enhance enrichment of O3 (Oxygen) and complete conversion and removal of CaCO3 (Calcium- Carbonate). A properly sized degasification tower or Decarbonation tower if your goal is to only remove CO2 will utilize a loose fill media packing bed, a header lateral distribution system with nozzles, media support plates, de-mister, and a forced draft type blower capable of overcoming the required static pressure.

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Topics: De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture

Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubber (with audio)

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 28, 2019 2:48:10 PM
Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubber (audio)

Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Formula and the Molar mass of H2S

What is Hydrogen Sulfide? H2S is a naturally occurring chemical compound that is created in nature with the decay of organic material. Hydrogen sulfide formula is a chemical compound with a molecular formula comprised of (2) Hydrogen atoms and (1) one Sulfur atom. The formula is displayed as H2S. The gas is a colorless hydride gas and is often known as the “Rotten egg gas”. This gas is very dangerous as it is poisonous and toxic to all forms of life. It is also very corrosive and is flammable. The H2S molar mass is 34.1 g/mol and it has a melting point of -76 F (-60 C) and a melting point of –115.6F or (-82C).

Hydrogen sulfide gas is also created more often from a byproduct of a manufacturing process or from the removal of water or waste water treatment systems. In waste water as organic material decays H2S is released and must be captured and treated to protect both human lives, reduce corrosion, and reduce odor complaints. During the manufacturing operations at refineries, pulp mills, and mining hydrogen sulfide gas is produced. These higher levels of H2S are released during the manufacturing process and must be captured and neutralized to protect human life and prevent excessive corrosion. At higher concentration you cannot even smell the gas and it is not distinguishable as the “rotten egg” which makes it even more dangerous and drives the need for equipment known as Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubbers, Fume scrubbers, or Odor Control Scrubbers.

According to the “Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry who work within certain industries are exposed daily to higher levels of Hydrogen Sulfide gas than the normal public. Because the gas is also heavier than air it will settle into lower places like manholes, tanks, basements and it will travel across the ground filling in low level areas. To protect the public OSHA has set guidelines and rules known as “Permissible Exposure Limits” (PEL). A PEL is the legal limit a worker may be exposed to a chemical substance. The PEL limit for Hydrogen Sulfide is ten parts per million (10 ppm) over an eight-hour period.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, wastewater, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Formula, Molar mass, Hydrogen Sulfide formula, molar mass h2s

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