DELOACH BLOG

How to Remove PFA'S from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 22, 2022 1:02:58 PM

The EPA and other world health organizations have recognized the dangers and health impacts of being exposed to PFAS's. Federal and State regulators are adopting new guidelines and laws for the treatment and removal of PFAS's. Often PFAS's within potable drinking water systems or groundwater contaminated with one of the various types of PFAS's. There are over 4700 different variations of PFAS's that have variations and at least three polyfluorinated carbon atoms.

 

There are well over 10,000 types of PFAS's that get introduced into products that can and have impacted the drinking water in the USA and other countries. 

 

So what are PFAS's?

 

PFAS's are fluorinated substances that include at least one fully fluorinated methyl or methylene carbon atom, and they do not contain ( H/Cl/Br/I atoms). However, any chemical with at least a per fluorinated (CF3) or a per fluorinated (–CF2–) is a PFAS. There are a few exceptions. Different subgroup categories include surfactants, including per fluorosulfonic acids, perfluorooctane sulfonic, perfluorocarboxylic, and perfluorooctanoic acids. Often referred to as PFOS's and PFOA's.

 

Diagram of a skeletal structure of a PFOS and space-filled model.

The following is a diagram illustrating the potential health impacts from PFAS's, PFOS's and PFOA's obtained from Wikipedia.

 

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, NSF/ANSI 61, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, decarbonator, degasifier, H2S Degasifier, degassed water, ansi61, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, CO2 in water, Deagasification, hydrogen ion, Sand filters, green sand, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Ion exchange, cations, anions

What is Water Demineralization?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jan 27, 2022 12:54:16 PM

Water demineralization is also referred to as deionization and as a process known as “Ion Exchange”. In simple terms, water demineralization is “Water Purification”. The process involves removing dissolved ionic mineral solids from a feed-water process typically for “Industrial” water applications but can also be utilized to remove dissolved solids from a water process for “Aquaculture”, “Food and Beverage” and the “Municipal” markets.

Why is demineralization utilized? Well, it can remove dissolved solids down to near distilled water quality at a much lower capital and operational cost than other treatment processes such as membrane softening (Reverse Osmosis). Demineralization applies the science known as “Ion Exchange” that attracts negative and positive charged ions and allows either to attached themselves to an opposing ion depending on their respective current negative or positive charge during what is known as a resin cycle. We will explore and go into more specific details on the science of the ion exchange process in other technical articles. Water that has dissolved salts and minerals have ions and these ions are either negatively charged ions known as “Anions” or positively charged ions known as “Cations”. In order to treat the water and remove these contaminants the ions in the water are attracted to counter-ions which are ions that have an opposing charge. In a demineralization treatment process, there are pressure vessels that hold resin beads which are typically made of plastic. The beads are made from a plastic material that has an ionic functional group that allows them to hold and maintain an electrostatic electrical charge. Some of these resins groups are negatively charged and they are referred to as “Anion” resins while others hold a positive charge and are called “Cations” resins.

There are different applications to apply Ion exchange technologies and that is why you will often hear the different terminology interchanged like deionization and demineralization. The raw water quality and the specific application will dictate the type of ion exchange process that will be needed. As an example, if the water contains a high level of hardness the water will most likely contain Ca2+ or Mg2+ dissolved solids possessing a positive charge. To replace these hard ions it is typical to utilize a resin bed with a salt ion like Na+. As the water passes over the resin bead material within the pressure vessel the hard ions are replaced with the salt ion and therefore all of the hardness within the water is removed. However, the water will now contain a higher concentration of sodium ions and this must be considered during the evaluation and selection process of the type of resin material to utilize for the specific application. If the water application requires high purity and the removal of as many solids as possible then the term or process selected is referred to as demineralization.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), media packing, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, decarbonator, degasifier, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Aquaculture, degassed water, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, Deagasification, decarbonation of water, hydrogen ion, particulate matter, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, automated control systems, Ion exchange, cations, anions

Decarbonation the Removal of CO2 from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation, the removal of CO2 from water

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution

in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, removal of CO2 from water

What Makes DeLoach Industries Unique?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 20, 2017 3:43:33 PM

DeLoach Industries Inc. has been serving the municipal, industrial, and food and beverage industries since 1959.

DeLoach Industries specializes in the design, manufacturing, operations & maintenance of water treatment, wastewater treatment, odor control, and pisciculture/aqua farming systems.

What makes DeLoach Industries Inc. unique is that, as an original equipment manufacturer, we have extensive knowledge and we understand how to engineer, design and manufacture the equipment you need. We are different from traditional fabrication shops in that they will typically build something specific to your drawing but if there is a problem they may not understand the process involved or even how to correct the problem.

We serve each customer on a project by project basis to fully understand your needs. We offer full in house engineering and CAD design support services, manufacturing services including operation & maintenance support, and field services including annual service contracts on all DeLoach and other brand water treatment equipment.

 

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, fiberglass, About DeLoach Industries, fabrication, biological scrubber, Chemical Odor, media packing, pH levels, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, decarbonator, boiler system, distillation, degasifier, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Biological Odor Control Scrubber, Biological odor control, removal of CO2 from water, Deagasification, decarbonation of water, Sand filters, Filter Media, municipal water systems, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Drinking Water

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