DELOACH BLOG

What Is Water Turbidity?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Mar 18, 2022 1:05:00 PM

Water turbidity refers to how clear or translucent the water is when examining or testing it for any given use.

Water turbidity can impact food and beverage, municipal, industrial, and aquaculture operations. Turbidity is caused by suspended or dissolved particles in the water that scatter light which causes the water to appear cloudy or even murky.

Different types of particles can cause turbidity and they include sediments such as silts and clay, very fine inorganic or organic matter, algae or soluble colored organic compounds, and microscopic organisms. Turbidity is measured in a value referred to as NTU, which means Nephelometric Turbidity Unit. The EPA requires in the USA a turbidity level no higher than 0.3 NTU, and if a member of the partnership of safe drinking water, then the level must not exceed 0.1 NTU.

High turbidity can create habitats for other harmful elements such as bacteria or metals that can accumulate onto the particles. This increases the health risk for a potable water system. In aquaculture operations, increased turbidity from silts and sediments can be harmful and detrimental to marine life, so it must be removed to safe levels. For the food and beverage industry, the impact of high turbidity can be both a safety concern as well as a visual and noticeable quality concern because if the turbidity is high, it can alter the physical look of the final product, for example, a distillery.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, Safe drinking water, De-Aeration, decarbonator, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Deagasification, particulate matter, filters, Sand filters, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, DeLoach Industries, Inc., turbidity

How to Remove PFA'S from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 22, 2022 1:02:58 PM

The EPA and other world health organizations have recognized the dangers and health impacts of being exposed to PFASs.

 

Federal and State regulators are adopting new guidelines and laws for treating and removing PFASs. Often PFASs within potable drinking water systems or groundwater is contaminated with one of the various types of PFASs. There are over 4700 different variations of PFASs that have variations and at least three polyfluorinated carbon atoms.

 

Well over 10,000 types of PFASs are introduced into products that can and have impacted the drinking water in the USA and other countries. 

 

So what are PFASs?

 

PFASs are fluorinated substances that include at least one fully fluorinated methyl or methylene carbon atom and do not contain ( H/Cl/Br/I atoms). However, any chemical with at least a perfluorinated (CF3) or a perfluorinated (–CF2–) is a PFAS. There are a few exceptions. Different subgroups include surfactants, per fluorosulfonic acids, perfluorooctane sulfonic, perfluoro carboxylic, and perfluorooctanoic acids. Often referred to as PFOSs and PFOAs.

 

 

PFOS, PFOA, and other PFASs are persistent organic pollutants and are often referred to as the "forever chemicals" because they do not easily break down in the environment. These organic contaminants are found in humans, animals, and our water supplies across the USA. These chemicals started to be banned in 2021 when Maine took the lead as the first US state to implement the ban and discontinue their use by 2030 in all products unless there is no other current option than an exception may be granted.

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, NSF/ANSI 61, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, decarbonator, degasifier, H2S Degasifier, degassed water, ansi61, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, CO2 in water, Deagasification, hydrogen ion, Sand filters, green sand, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Ion exchange, cations, anions

What is Water Demineralization?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jan 27, 2022 12:54:16 PM

Water demineralization is also referred to as deionization and as a process known as “Ion Exchange”.

In simple terms, water demineralization is “Water Purification”. The process involves removing dissolved ionic mineral solids from a feed-water process typically for “Industrial” water applications but can also be utilized to remove dissolved solids from a water process for “Aquaculture”, “Food and Beverage” and the “Municipal” markets.

Why is demineralization utilized? Well, it can remove dissolved solids down to near distilled water quality at a much lower capital and operational cost than other treatment processes such as membrane softening (Reverse Osmosis). Demineralization applies the science known as “Ion Exchange” which attracts negative and positive charged ions and allows either to attach themselves to an opposing ion depending on their respective current negative or positive charge during what is known as a resin cycle. We will explore and go into more specific details on the science of the ion exchange process in other technical articles. Water that has dissolved salts and minerals has ions and these ions are either negatively charged ions known as “Anions” or positively charged ions known as “Cations”. In order to treat the water and remove these contaminants the ions in the water are attracted to counter-ions which are ions that have an opposing charge. In a demineralization treatment process, there are pressure vessels that hold resin beads which are typically made of plastic. The beads are made from a plastic material that has an ionic functional group that allows them to hold and maintain an electrostatic electrical charge. Some of these resin groups are negatively charged and they are referred to as “Anion” resins while others hold a positive charge and are called “Cations” resins.

There are different applications to apply Ion exchange technologies and that is why you will often hear the different terminology interchanged like deionization and demineralization. The raw water quality and the specific application will dictate the type of ion exchange process that will be needed. As an example, if the water contains a high level of hardness the water will most likely contain Ca2+ or Mg2+ dissolved solids possessing a positive charge. To replace these hard ions it is typical to utilize a resin bed with a salt ion like Na+. As the water passes over the resin bead material within the pressure vessel the hard ions are replaced with the salt ion and therefore all of the hardness within the water is removed. However, the water will now contain a higher concentration of sodium ions and this must be considered during the evaluation and selection process of the type of resin material to utilize for the specific application. If the water application requires high purity and the removal of as many solids as possible then the term or process selected is referred to as demineralization.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), media packing, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, decarbonator, degasifier, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Aquaculture, degassed water, Co2 ph, removal of CO2 from water, Deagasification, decarbonation of water, hydrogen ion, particulate matter, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, automated control systems, Ion exchange, cations, anions

Chemical Compatibility

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Oct 29, 2021 1:01:00 PM

In process control systems, it is often required to handle fluids that have a harsh chemical nature. In these cases, it is necessary to be aware of material chemical compatibility. Chemical compatibility is a general term referring to the way a specific chemical interacts with a specific material. This information is taken into consideration when selecting materials of construction for tanks, valves, pipework, tubing, and other devices that may encounter harsh chemicals. Common chemical types that are used in process systems are acids, bases, corrosives and oxidizers, and hydrocarbons. Typical chemical resistant materials include natural and synthetic rubbers, vinyl polymers, fluoropolymers, and stainless steel. In order to determine which materials are compatible with certain chemicals, a chemical compatibility chart is often used. A chemical compatibility chart contains tabulated data about how a given material interacts with a given chemical.

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, caustic, Decarbonation, decarbonator, degasifier, Deagasification

Ph Probes and Periodic Re-Calibration

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Aug 25, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In many water treatment and chemical processes,

it is a requirement to keep track of the pH of the water or product stream. In DeLoach Industries equipment such as degasification systems, or odor control scrubbers, pH measurement is critical to control the chemical reactions happening within the treatment system. PH is an indication of the acidic vs alkaline nature of a fluid. An acidic fluid will have a greater concentration of H+ hydrogen ions, while an alkaline fluid will have a greater concentration of OH- hydroxide ions. This electrochemical nature is used in the construction, reading, and maintenance of electronic pH probes.

PH probes are generally glass,

and will contain a reference element, and a sensing element. When the pH probe is immersed in the fluid to be measured, the electrical potential difference between the sensing element and the reference element is amplified by electronics, and the resulting voltage is used in a calculation to determine pH from differential electron potential. As a pH probe remains in service, ion exchange will slowly change the electrical potential of the sensing element, the reference element, or both. This happens because the hydrogen ions are small enough to travel through the glass sensor body and cause reference potential shift over time. This is a normal behavior for all pH probes and is the reason why pH probes must be periodically calibrated.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide, gases, RO system, Aqua Farming

Decarbonation the Removal of CO2 from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation, the removal of CO2 from water

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution

in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, removal of CO2 from water

Water Degasification in Pisciculture

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 11, 2020 9:36:29 AM

The need to remove harmful elements from water such as Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide

from water in the pisciculture and aquaculture market is extremely important. In order to achieve maximum results, the industry utilizes a treatment technology called “Degasificationand controls the pH precisely to maximize results. When utilizing equipment such as the DeLoach Industries degasification systems the hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide levels can be removed to 99.999% ug/l.

pH control with water degasification in water treatment is very important for the aquaculture and the pisciculture market. In addition, there are a host of other organic and inorganic elements found in water both naturally occurring and manmade that require removal during some part of the water treatment process and pH plays a significant role on the effectiveness of the treatment process.

Every application of degasification depends on pH adjustment to maximize results. As an example, the treatment of water may require the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to protect the species during the growth period. Hydrogen sulfide can be removed either as a “free” gas or requires the conversion of sulfides into (H2S) as a gas they you will quite often also see the need to adjust pH of the water chemistry to maximize both the removal and the conversion to increase the efficiency of the equipment being utilized to remove the hydrogen sulfide such as a degasification tower or commonly called a degasifier.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture

Relationship of Water Degasification and Decarbonation and pH

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 3, 2020 1:01:00 PM

The need for pH control with water degasification and decarbonation in water treatment includes almost every industry and includes;

The need for pH control with water degasification and decarbonation in water treatment includes almost every industry and includes; Aquaculture, food and beverage, industrial, municipal, and even pisciculture.  In some water treatment applications, harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) are removed, while in other applications, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or a combination of both. In addition, there's a host of other organic and inorganic elements found in water, both naturally occurring and manmade, that require removal during some part of the water treatment process.  

In almost every application of degasification or decarbonation, you will hear or see the term pH used either by need or by the result.  If, as an example, the water treatment application requires the removal of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) to be removed either as “free” gas or requires the conversion of Sulfides into (H2S) gas. You will often also see the need to adjust the pH of the water chemistry to maximize both the removal and the conversion to increase the efficiency of the equipment being utilized to remove the hydrogen sulfide, such as a degasification tower or commonly called a degasifier.

So, what is pH?

Water pH is a term used to describe whether or not the water is “acidic” or “basic.”  pH ranges in water can be from 0-14.  0 is the most acidic, and 14 is at the far end and is the most basic, leaving “7” as the neutral state.  A pH of 7 is neither acidic nor basic. So, what causes pH to be acidic?  In nature, the most common cause of a low acidic pH in water is Carbon Dioxide (CO2) which occurs naturally when photosynthesis, decomposition, or respiration occurs in nature.  The increase in CO2 causes an increase in ions, producing a lower pH in a simplified explanation.

How does pH play such a significant role in degasification and decarbonation? 

As mentioned above in the example of the removal of certain harmful elements such as sulfides, sulfates, and free H2S hydrogen sulfide gases, to maximize the removal from water utilizing a degasification tower, it is important to maintain as close to a pH of 5 as possible.  When the pH rises above 5, the ability to convert and strip the free H2S gas from the water diminishes.  When a degasification tower operates within this specific range and if it has been designed with the higher efficient distribution systems such as the ones utilized by DeLoach Industries, removal efficiencies of 99.999%- 100% can be achieved.   If the pH rises to a seven or above, the removal process becomes much more difficult, and typically, you will much lower results.  The pH adjustment during the water treatment process is normally accomplished by adding commercially available acid, such as “sulphuric acid,” one of the most common in the municipal and food and beverage industry.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture

The Basics of Water Decarbonation

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 25, 2019 1:04:12 PM

Basics of water decarbonation for dissolved organic carbon.

The water treatment industry continues to develop and evolve and over the past two decades there have been many new developments in technology and even more refinement in existing technologies such as "Degasification". The evolution and advancement of water treatment have been driven by the constantly increasing demand from an increase in population that demand cost-effective solutions and recognition to improve safety with the implementation of NSF 61 standards.

All human cultures on our planet share a single commonality and that is the dependency on water to survive.

Many existing technologies such as "Degasification" have evolved with higher efficiency to meet the demand changes and provide safety to consumers and to the systems. Degasification refers to the removal of dissolved gases from liquids and the science to degasify water is based upon a chemistry equation known as "Henry's Law". The "proportionality factor" is called Henry's law constant" and was developed by William Henry in the early 19th century. Henry's Law states that "the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas". The most "cost" effective method to perform degasification is with the packed vertical tower called a "Degasifier” or “Decarbonator”.

The key words in this previous sentence for owners, operators, and engineers to focus on is "the most cost-effective" as there is no other process more cost-effective at removing dissolved gases at the lowest cost than the use of a Degasifier or decarbonator. The process of degasification is simple enough to understand. Water is pumped to the top of a vertically constructed tower where it first enters the tower through some type of distribution system at the same time there is a cross current air flowing up from the bottom by a blower located at the bottom of the tower and the air encounters the water and is exhausted at the top of the tower through an exhaust port. There are various types of distributions systems and we will explore these in later discussions. Once the water enters the top of the tower and passes through the distribution system it then travels by gravity downward. The next thing the water encounters is some type of media packing. There are various forms of media packing offered in the degasification industry and each type can offer higher performance or have the ability to deter fouling. The selection of the type, size, and volume is where the “experience, engineering and understanding of each application” comes in to play.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, About DeLoach Industries, water plant, NSF/ANSI 61, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), media packing, pH levels, scaling, caustic, Decarbonation, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, Dissolved organic Carbon, co2 dissolved in water

Forced Draft Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 23, 2018 7:49:53 AM

In the production and purification of water for industry

there are many types of different processes available to remove harmful minerals and gases from the water stream but the most effective process and most cost effective from both a capital investment and operational cost is a “Forced Draft Degasification System” (Degasifier).

Degasification is used in a wide range of water processes for industrial and municipal applications which extend from the production of chemicals to the production of semiconductors and in all applications the need to remove contaminants from the water and dissolved gases is key to achieving the end results needed in the industrial water process. Water from the ground often contains elements such as calcium carbonate, manganese, iron, salts, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur just to name a few of the basic contaminants and these naturally occurring elements can cause serious damage and consequences to process equipment such as boiler systems, piping, membranes, and cation and anion exchange resins used in the demineralization process.

Calcium carbonate can dissolve in water under certain pH ranges forming carbonic acid and releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) gases. These gases are not only very corrosive to equipment like boiler feed systems and boiler tubes but also attack the actual resin beds found in cation and anion softening and demineralization system causing an increase in regeneration and chemical consumption and resin bed replacement.

By incorporating a Force Draft Degasification system you can remove dissolved gasses

like CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to as low as 99.999% and improve the cation and anion system performance, extend the resin bed life, and lower the operating cost of the water treatment process.

Quite often Forced Draft Degasification is utilized “post” treatment to also remove newly formed dissolved gases prior to entering the boiler feed system to prevent corrosion damage within the tubes and feed system and pumps. These gases are easily removed with the forced draft degasifier at a much lower cost than chemical additives or liquid cell degasification that requires higher capital cost and much higher operating cost.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, aluminum, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Langilier index (LSI), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, feed water, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

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