DELOACH BLOG

Treating Noxious Fumes with an Odor Control Scrubber.

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 24, 2022 1:00:00 PM

A manufacturing facility cannot ignore the importance of odor control.

 

The smell from chemicals, vapors, and fumes can spread quickly in a small area. They cause discomfort to workers and pose health risks to them. In addition to that, excess vapors directly impact the efficiency of exhaust or natural ventilation systems. For example, an odor control scrubber tower is an additional layer in the ventilation system of a manufacturing plant or chemical processing facility that has issues with odors. These towers effectively remove noxious fumes and odors from ventilation exhaust streams using an activated carbon filter and an ionic air filter.

 

Reasons why you should consider installing an Odor Control Scrubber Tower :

 

Health & safety of workers.

 

Everyone working in an industrial environment, either directly or indirectly, is at risk of exposure to hazardous fumes and gases. At times, high concentrations of these gases may be emitted into the atmosphere in the form of unhealthy odors, putting the health and safety of the workers at risk. These gases may even be combustible in some cases, posing a significant threat to workers. The purpose of an odor control scrubber tower is to remove these gases from the contaminated air stream and help the workers stay safe. In addition, it reduces the risk of health issues such as nausea, headaches, loss of consciousness, allergy symptoms, dizziness, and many more. It also prevents workers from missing their daily performance targets due to sickness caused by toxic fumes.

 

Pro-environment step.

 

Although it is vital to protect the workers from exposure to harmful fumes, it is also essential to protect the environment. Odor control scrubbers are used in petrochemical refining, pharmaceutical, food & beverage, paper, mining, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, it is crucial to choose the right type of scrubber that suits your industry’s requirements. The right choice of equipment also protects the environment as it helps reduce operational costs and maintenance supervision. It also protects the environment because it produces minimal sludge and reduces the risk of corrosion.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, odor control, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, safety, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, caustic, Safe drinking water, wastewater, gases, Biological Odor Control Scrubber, Biological odor control, what is a scrubber, municipal water systems, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Clean Water, Industrial Odor Control

Chemical Compatibility

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Oct 29, 2021 1:01:00 PM

In process control systems, it is often required to handle fluids that have a harsh chemical nature. In these cases, it is necessary to be aware of material chemical compatibility. Chemical compatibility is a general term referring to the way a specific chemical interacts with a specific material. This information is taken into consideration when selecting materials of construction for tanks, valves, pipework, tubing, and other devices that may encounter harsh chemicals. Common chemical types that are used in process systems are acids, bases, corrosives and oxidizers, and hydrocarbons. Typical chemical resistant materials include natural and synthetic rubbers, vinyl polymers, fluoropolymers, and stainless steel. In order to determine which materials are compatible with certain chemicals, a chemical compatibility chart is often used. A chemical compatibility chart contains tabulated data about how a given material interacts with a given chemical.

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, caustic, Decarbonation, decarbonator, degasifier, Deagasification

Biological Odor Control Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 4, 2021 9:26:05 AM

A BIOLOGICAL ODOR CONTROL SCRUBBER IS JUST ONE OF MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

To treat air emissions that may contain harmful gases. This class of equipment commonly falls into a category referred to as “Odor Control Scrubbers” and they are utilized to remove dangerous or noxious odors from an air stream. The Biological Odor Control System has gain popularity among many end users such as municipal operators due to the reduced operating cost and more simplistic operating requirements. A typical chemical odor control scrubber often requires two or more chemical additives, and more instrumentation is required to maintain system performance. With the additional chemicals required and instrumentation comes the need for more hands-on maintenance, calibration, and safety requirements which increases the operating costs and workload of the operator.

A Biological Odor Control System relies on active bacteria cultures that recirculate within a water stream and flow across a random packed media bed that is beneficial to the bacteria culture. During the process of metabolizing harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) the biological odor control system requires only the addition of Caustic to control and balance the pH and additional water makeup to replace what has been consumed through evaporation or during the blow down process to eliminate solids. There are several different types of odor control and chemical wet scrubbers on the market today and each provide a solution for the treatment of noxious or corrosive gases and odors in the industry.  And even though Biological scrubbers are commonly utilized in municipal applications for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases that were produced by a water or wastewater treatment process there are times when a Biological Scrubber does not provide the best solution for treatment. When there are wide or rapidly changing concentration in the ppm (parts per million) level than a Biological Scrubber will have difficulties balancing and acclimating fast enough to prevent break through.  As an example, In water treatment there is a treatment process referred to as “degasification” which strips the hydrogen sulfide gas from the water and then the concentrated H2S gas is exhausted from the tower through an exhaust port.  When the concentration rises above 1 ppm for hydrogen sulfide gas then the levels become both noxious to the surroundings as well as corrosive. Many times, the levels range from 3-7 PPM in concentration with Hydrogen Sulfide and pose a serious health threat, noxious odor, and corrosive environment demanding capture and treatment. When utilizing an Odor Control Scrubber such as a Biological Scrubber the gases are pulled or pushed through an air duct system that is connected to the Biological Scrubber inlet or suction side of the blower. The same process is utilized when treating Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gases that were captured at a wastewater treatment process. These gases may have been generated from a source such as the wastewater treatment plant, lift station or master head-works facility. When captured the gases are also conveyed in a similar manner to the Biological Odor Control Tower for treatment.

So how does a Biological Scrubber work?

A Biological Odor Control Scrubber is in fact a eco system all to itself. The biological scrubber relies upon an initial seeding of tiny microorganisms (bacteria) which attach themselves to the internal media substrate or packing providing both a place to attach and to breed and multiply all the time coming in direct contact with the contaminated air. The bacteria are utilized to breakdown and digest contaminants, and it feeds on the contaminants as a food source which allows it to not only live but continue to grow and multiply.

When utilizing a Biological Odor Scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment and removal the by-product that is produced during the reaction is a waste in the form of Sulphuric Acid which is produced as the Sulphur is consumed as a food source. The Sulphuric acid waste lowers the pH of the recirculating water and can create an unhealthy 

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, caustic, wastewater, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

The Basics of Water Decarbonation

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Feb 25, 2019 1:04:12 PM

Basics of water decarbonation for dissolved organic carbon.

The water treatment industry continues to develop and evolve and over the past two decades there have been many new developments in technology and even more refinement in existing technologies such as "Degasification". The evolution and advancement of water treatment have been driven by the constantly increasing demand from an increase in population that demand cost-effective solutions and recognition to improve safety with the implementation of NSF 61 standards.

All human cultures on our planet share a single commonality and that is the dependency on water to survive.

Many existing technologies such as "Degasification" have evolved with higher efficiency to meet the demand changes and provide safety to consumers and to the systems. Degasification refers to the removal of dissolved gases from liquids and the science to degasify water is based upon a chemistry equation known as "Henry's Law". The "proportionality factor" is called Henry's law constant" and was developed by William Henry in the early 19th century. Henry's Law states that "the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas". The most "cost" effective method to perform degasification is with the packed vertical tower called a "Degasifier” or “Decarbonator”.

The key words in this previous sentence for owners, operators, and engineers to focus on is "the most cost-effective" as there is no other process more cost-effective at removing dissolved gases at the lowest cost than the use of a Degasifier or decarbonator. The process of degasification is simple enough to understand. Water is pumped to the top of a vertically constructed tower where it first enters the tower through some type of distribution system at the same time there is a cross current air flowing up from the bottom by a blower located at the bottom of the tower and the air encounters the water and is exhausted at the top of the tower through an exhaust port. There are various types of distributions systems and we will explore these in later discussions. Once the water enters the top of the tower and passes through the distribution system it then travels by gravity downward. The next thing the water encounters is some type of media packing. There are various forms of media packing offered in the degasification industry and each type can offer higher performance or have the ability to deter fouling. The selection of the type, size, and volume is where the “experience, engineering and understanding of each application” comes in to play.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, About DeLoach Industries, water plant, NSF/ANSI 61, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), media packing, pH levels, scaling, caustic, Decarbonation, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, Dissolved organic Carbon, co2 dissolved in water

Reverse Osmosis-A walk in time

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:53:00 AM

DeLoach Industries made history in 1977 at the City of Cape Coral Florida water treatment plant with its large scale “degasification towers” connected to what was to become the first municipal water treatment facility in the United States to deploy the use of reverse osmosis on a large-scale production municipal treatment plant.

The Cape Coral water treatment plant for came on line in 1977 and produced 3 million gallons of water per day (GPD) or 11.35 liters of purified and treated water utilizing the “reverse osmosis” process. By 1985 the plant had expanded as it kept up with growth to produce 15 million gallons per day making it at the time the worlds’ largest “reverse osmosis” water treatment plant facility.

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Topics: water quality, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, scaling, chlorine, caustic, Decarbonation, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, RO membrane, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Caustic Scrubber for Sodium Hydroxide

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:51:00 AM

Caustic solution for Sodium hydroxide water treatment

There are many industries that require the use of a caustic scrubber which is considered a chemical scrubber and they range from the municipal industry, mining, semiconductor markets, pulp and paper and chemical refining.  There is a wide variety of industrial processes that generate noxious or corrosive off gases that require treatment and a comparison is made about biological Vs. chemical.  Often biological scrubbers have limitations due to concentrations, composition, or temperature of the contaminants and if the gas stream contains acid fumes then a biological scrubber is quickly ruled out.

The odor control selection is often fraught with choices of capital cost over operational cost and quite often comes down to familiarity from the designer or purchaser.  It is always a good idea to freshen up on the industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s before selecting the final solution.  If the off gas source that needs to be treated is hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or some other type of gas stream produced by an acid or ammonia it will often require neutralization for human health reasons and to protect equipment or may be required to meet regulatory compliance. Caustic scrubbers may be either vertical or horizontal by design, but both utilize a packed media bed of either random packing or trays to allow the gas fumes to meet the recirculating caustic solution which then forces the reaction to occur.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, caustic, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, caustic solution, sodium hydroxide water treatment

Industrial Odor Control: The Do’s and Don’ts

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 26, 2018 8:32:00 AM

Avoid problems with calcium chlorite, and corrosive gasses with your odor control scrubber.

When planning or designing an odor control system one should pay close attention to several key variables that can cause havoc on a chemical odor control scrubber when trying to treat hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gases.   The need for odor control occurs in many different forms and it is important to have a good understanding of the process that is creating the odorous or corrosive gas and the need for odor control & air emissions treatment.

First, begin to identify

all the potential obstacles that may creep up later after the chemical odor or corrosive gas control system goes online like acid or caustic consumption. As an example, chemical odor control systems that are designed for water treatment for the municipal industry are typically needed and attached to a degasification or decarbonation process which is often needed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, many times designers may not pay close enough attention to the type of water process that is available to use for “make-up” water for the chemical scrubber and the addition of caustic can create scaling or fouling. This unknown variable of the makeup water quality can lead to a complete tower shutdown if the chemical scrubber distribution and media bed scales or fouls. The most commonly used chemicals for a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) scrubber are either chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite or caustic in the form of caustic soda. Both of these chemicals are common to a water treatment facility and are already in place for the adjustment and control of pH.

The makeup water plays a significant role in the operation of a chemical scrubber.

When water containing high levels of hardness levels is used as the source for the makeup water your chemical scrubber can become fouled and scaling can occur in a matter of hours depending on the alkalinity and salts within the water. Solidification can occur from the scaling when combining sodium hypochlorite and raw feed water at certain pH ranges and these ranges are normally the range needed to achieve peak performance. Calcium chloride will form and your chemical odor control scrubber will become a solid chunk of calcium chlorite making the ability for water or air to pass freely through the media packing next to impossible. No matter what type of media packing is utilized in the odor control or gas scrubber it can foul and scale if the water chemistry is incorrect.  Trust me when I say “been there and done that”!  I have seen operators who have allowed a chemical scrubber to become out of balance with pH control and completely solidify the tower column to the degree that neither air nor water passage is possible. With ammonia scrubbers, the problem can still occur but are different with different sets of parameters.

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Alkalinity, Langilier index (LSI), scaling, chlorine, caustic, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, calcium chlorite

Don't Foul Your Chemical Odor Control Treatment System.

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 3, 2018 12:00:00 AM

When operating a chemical odor control treatment system it is important to make sure you have a good handle on the makeup water supply system in terms of its water quality. Having the LSI number out of balance can create havoc to the odor control treatment system in a matter of hours or over a short duration of time.

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Topics: odor control, calcium carbonate, Chemical Odor, media packing, Langilier index (LSI), scaling, chlorine, caustic

Safety Precautions When Entering A Water Treatment Tower Or Tank

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Sep 20, 2017 2:36:58 PM

Water treatment towers and storage tanks are high places that require special precautions when entering. While the majority of people who enter these locations for work can be trusted, there are some hazards that make it more important than usual to follow safety procedures.

These locations can get very hot and humid, and can also be filled with harmful chemicals and microorganisms that can cause serious health issues if inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, the general standard for workplace safety is much higher when entering locations like these.

Make sure you have read and understood the following information about safety when entering a water treatment plant. It will help you understand how to stay safe and protect yourself from harm when entering a water treatment plant. normal installation, maintenance, or even emergency repairs, it is often required to enter into a water treatment tower (degasifier, air stripper, decarbonator, or clear well/ storage tank). When this occurs, full safety protocols should be followed at all times, in accordance with OSHA regulations.  A tower or tank B classification is a "Confined Space" location. For more information visit the OSHA combined space regulations page.

In addition, there are other safety risks that an operator or technician can be exposed to while inside these types of closed locations. The risk can come from fumes of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), chlorine from an injection line, or a lack of oxygen O2. A proper confined space permit should be prepared and only technicians with proper training and certifications should enter into these types of confined spaces.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, safety, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, scaling, caustic, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, Ammonia, what is a scrubber, Hydrogen Sulfide formula, Deagasification, Filter Media, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Drinking Water, Clean Water, Contaminated Water, OSHA

Utilizing Decarbonation to Lower CO2 Levels & Raise pH

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 18, 2017 1:05:24 PM

CO2 & ph In municipal and industrial water processes

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in municipal and Industrial water can create problems in the treatment process, increase operational costs of the treatment plant, and cause excessive corrosion to equipment and ancillary equipment.

In nature, one of the most natural common causes that creates low pH or acidity in water is an element known as “Carbon Dioxide” (CO2).  The process of how carbon dioxide enters the water in the first place is a topic worth exploring.  Nature creates one of the most common causes of CO2 found in the water naturally. When water reaches an equilibrium with our atmosphere followed by the biological degradation that is aided by photosynthesis of organic carbon (CH2O) then carbon dioxide begins to form. Organic carbon is dissolved in water and it forms “Carbonic Acid”

(H2CO3).  CO2 (g) + H2(l) = H2CO3 (aq). 

The process to form the carbonic acid is slow and only a small portion remains as an acid because proton losses occur during the process.

H2CO3 (aq) « H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)

CO3- (aq) « H+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, water plant, pH levels, caustic, Decarbonation, wastewater, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, Co2 ph

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