DELOACH BLOG

Ph Probes and the Importance of Periodic Re-Calibration

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Aug 25, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In many water treatment and chemical processes,

it is a requirement to keep track of the pH of the water or product stream. In DeLoach Industries equipment such as degasification systems, or odor control scrubbers, pH measurement is critical to control the chemical reactions happening within the treatment system. PH is an indication of the acidic vs alkaline nature of a fluid. An acidic fluid will have a greater concentration of H+ hydrogen ions, while an alkaline fluid will have a greater concentration of OH- hydroxide ions. This electrochemical nature is used in the construction, reading, and maintenance of electronic pH probes.

PH probes are generally glass,

and will contain a reference element, and a sensing element. When the pH probe is immersed in the fluid to be measured, the electrical potential difference between the sensing element and the reference element is amplified by electronics, and the resulting voltage is used in a calculation to determine pH from differential electron potential. As a pH probe remains in service, ion exchange will slowly change the electrical potential of the sensing element, the reference element, or both. This happens because the hydrogen ions are small enough to travel through the glass sensor body and cause reference potential shift over time. This is a normal behavior for all pH probes and is the reason why pH probes must be periodically calibrated.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide, gases, RO system, Aqua Farming

Decarbonation, The Removal of CO2 from Water.

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Forced Draft Degasification Pre and Post Cation And Anion Exchange

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 23, 2018 7:49:53 AM

In the production and purification of water for industry there are many types of different processes available to remove harmful minerals and gases from the water stream but the most effective process and most cost effective from both a capital investment and operational cost is a “Forced Draft Degasification System” (Degasifier).

Degasification is used in a wide range of water processes

for industrial and municipal applications which extend from the production of chemicals to the production of semiconductors and in all applications the need to remove contaminants from the water and dissolved gases is key to achieving the end results needed in the industrial water process. Water from the ground often contains elements such as calcium carbonate, manganese, iron, salts, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur just to name a few of the basic contaminants and these naturally occurring elements can cause serious damage and consequences to process equipment such as boiler systems, piping, membranes, and cation and anion exchange resins used in the demineralization process.

Calcium carbonate can dissolve in water under certain pH ranges forming carbonic acid and releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) gases. These gases are not only very corrosive to equipment like boiler feed systems and boiler tubes but also attack the actual resin beds found in cation and anion softening and demineralization system causing an increase in regeneration and chemical consumption and resin bed replacement.

By incorporating a Force Draft Degasification system you can remove dissolved gasses

like CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to as low as 99.999% and improve the cation and anion system performance, extend the resin bed life, and lower the operating cost of the water treatment process.

Quite often Forced Draft Degasification is utilized “post” treatment to also remove newly formed dissolved gases prior to entering the boiler feed system to prevent corrosion damage within the tubes and feed system and pumps. These gases are easily removed with the forced draft degasifier at a much lower cost than chemical additives or liquid cell degasification that requires higher capital cost and much higher operating cost.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, aluminum, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Langilier index (LSI), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, feed water, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Decarbonation of Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 7, 2018 10:16:40 AM

Requires an application commonly referred to

as either “Degasification” or "Decarbonation" and it requires the use of a piece of water treatment equipment called either a “degasifier” or a “decarbonator”. Both of these are similar in nature and are designed to remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the incoming water. A properly designed decarbonator can remove 99.99% of the free carbon dioxide gas that is present in the water stream. One of the primary reason for utilizing a decarbonator or degasifier for the removal of CO2 is the raise the pH of the water without the need to add caustic.

The other reason is the remove the CO2 prior to treating the water with Ion Exchange which utilizes Anion or Cation resins to reduce the regeneration cycles for the resin beds. High concentrations of CO2 consume the ion charge within the resins and require more frequent regeneration cycles. The difference between anion and cation resins resins is that one is positively charged (anion) and the other is negatively charged (cation), cation resins, which attract positive ions with their negative charge.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Industrial Boiler Feed Water For Steam

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 10:01:00 AM

In the USA market alone it is estimated the manufacturing industry consumes over 400 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water to produce steam. Approximately 60 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water is sent to the blow down drains in manufacturing. Another approximate 300 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of steam is consumed for direct injection. All this steam required in manufacturing shares the same common need, “water”. But not only water but “purified and treated” water is needed. For without the treatment process US manufacturers would face constant shut downs and increased capital spending driving their cost of goods through the roof. One form of water treatment to protect boilers is degasification and deaeration.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, De-Aeration, steam generation, steam generating boilers, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Industrial Odor Control: The Do’s and Don’ts

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 26, 2018 8:32:00 AM

When planning or designing an odor control system one should pay close attention to several key variables that can cause havoc on a chemical odor control scrubber when trying to treat hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gases.   The need for odor control occurs for many different forms and it is important to have a good understanding of the process that is creating the odorous or corrosive gas and the need for the odor control & air emissions treatment.

First begin to identify

all the potential obstacles that may creep up later after the chemical odor or corrosive gas control system goes on line like acid or caustic consumption. As an example, chemical odor control systems that are designed for water treatment for the municipal industry are typically needed and attached to a degasfication or decarbonation process which are often needed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, many times designers may not pay close enough attention to the type of water process that is available to use for “make-up” water for the chemical scrubber and with the addition of caustic this can create scaling or fouling. This unknown variable of the make up water quality can lead to a complete tower shutdown if the chemical scrubber distribution and media bed scales or fouls. The most commonly used chemicals for a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) scrubber are either chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite or caustic in the form of caustic soda. Both of these chemicals are both common to a water treatment facility and already in place for the adjustment and control of pH.

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Alkalinity, Langilier index (LSI), scaling, chlorine, caustic, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier

Scrubber Pack Media

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 19, 2018 3:53:58 PM
Watertower Clean (wistia video)

Many types of water treatment systems depend on some type of media to provide the best performance required as it relates to water treatment and waste water treatment. For use in reverse osmosis there is a reliance on membranes which act as filters to separate the solids from the water. For ion exchange there are “resins” whether AION or CATION the resins works to treat hard and corrosive water. Degasification and decarbonation towers both require an internal media and sometimes this is referred to as “Random Packing” or “Loose Fill Media” and in this process the media acts like a traffic cop directing traffic.

In this case it directs the water on its way down and through a towers internals where it is constantly reshaping the water droplets over and over again forcing gas molecules to come to the surface edge of the water where they are removed. Carbon filters also require a media which is of course “Carbon”. The carbon media acts like a sponge absorbing the contaminants that you wish to remove from the water until it is saturated and must be replaced or regenerated. Even sand filters or pressure filters require a media.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, water plant, media packing, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, wastewater, decarbonator, gases, RO membrane

Why Remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) From Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 7, 2018 12:00:00 AM

Carbon dioxide (CO2) exists naturally in nature as free CO2 and can be found in many water sources from lakes, streams, or other surface water bodies. Having free carbon dioxide (CO2) in a water process causes an ionic load problem for ion exchange. Resin treatments such as ion resins or continuous deionization (CDI) systems. Having CO2 in the water system causes several problems for the ion exchange process that includes an increase of regeneration, reduction in resin bed life, and of course more down time of the equipment for maintenance.

The most economical way to remove free Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is by utilizing a process called “Decarbonation” or sometimes referred to as “Degasification”. Utilizing the decarbonation process will remove CO2 levels to 99% or higher. DeLoach Industries offers a wide range of decarbonation and degasification equipment for municipal, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and the industrial markets. For more information or to learn more contact the professionals at DeLoach Industries Inc. at (941) 371-4995.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide

Saving Your Ion Exchange Resin In Boiler Feed Water By Utilizing Decarbonation

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 22, 2018 12:00:00 AM

Extending the life of your ion exchange resin in boiler feed water applications when producing steam is most effectively accomplished by utilizing a decarbonation process.

Decarbonation and Degasification is the process of running the in fluent water pre-Ion exchange treatment through a vertical packed tower called a decarbonator or often times referred to as a degasifier.  This is the most economical method to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) to prevent the formation of carbonic acid and other corrosive conditions is Degasification and Decarbonation which will extend the life of the ion exchange resin.  If CO2 levels remain high in the inlet feed water to the ion exchange system the resin beds whether cation or anion will require more frequent regeneration and your chemical usage and cost will rise. Odor Control E-Book

In industrial applications it’s easy to overlook,

and often there is not enough focus on the need to select the right type of decarbonation or degasification system to assure that the process water treatment system will perform at the highest optimal level.  For water filtration when the primary process is membrane filtration of as often referred to “reverse osmosis”, too little attention is given to the need to properly remove CO2 from the process to lower the pH and adjust the alkalinity. 

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Topics: water treatment issues, scaling, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin

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