DELOACH BLOG

Biological Odor Control Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 4, 2021 9:26:05 AM

A BIOLOGICAL ODOR CONTROL SCRUBBER IS JUST ONE OF MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

To treat air emissions that may contain harmful gases. This class of equipment commonly falls into a category referred to as “Odor Control Scrubbers” and they are utilized to remove dangerous or noxious odors from an air stream. The Biological Odor Control System has gain popularity among many end users such as municipal operators due to the reduced operating cost and more simplistic operating requirements. A typical chemical odor control scrubber often requires two or more chemical additives, and more instrumentation is required to maintain system performance. With the additional chemicals required and instrumentation comes the need for more hands-on maintenance, calibration, and safety requirements which increases the operating costs and workload of the operator.

A Biological Odor Control System relies on active bacteria cultures that recirculate within a water stream and flow across a random packed media bed that is beneficial to the bacteria culture. During the process of metabolizing harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) the biological odor control system requires only the addition of Caustic to control and balance the pH and additional water makeup to replace what has been consumed through evaporation or during the blow down process to eliminate solids. There are several different types of odor control and chemical wet scrubbers on the market today and each provide a solution for the treatment of noxious or corrosive gases and odors in the industry.  And even though Biological scrubbers are commonly utilized in municipal applications for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases that were produced by a water or wastewater treatment process there are times when a Biological Scrubber does not provide the best solution for treatment. When there are wide or rapidly changing concentration in the ppm (parts per million) level than a Biological Scrubber will have difficulties balancing and acclimating fast enough to prevent break through.  As an example, In water treatment there is a treatment process referred to as “degasification” which strips the hydrogen sulfide gas from the water and then the concentrated H2S gas is exhausted from the tower through an exhaust port.  When the concentration rises above 1 ppm for hydrogen sulfide gas then the levels become both noxious to the surroundings as well as corrosive. Many times, the levels range from 3-7 PPM in concentration with Hydrogen Sulfide and pose a serious health threat, noxious odor, and corrosive environment demanding capture and treatment. When utilizing an Odor Control Scrubber such as a Biological Scrubber the gases are pulled or pushed through an air duct system that is connected to the Biological Scrubber inlet or suction side of the blower. The same process is utilized when treating Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gases that were captured at a wastewater treatment process. These gases may have been generated from a source such as the wastewater treatment plant, lift station or master head-works facility. When captured the gases are also conveyed in a similar manner to the Biological Odor Control Tower for treatment.

So how does a Biological Scrubber work?

A Biological Odor Control Scrubber is in fact a eco system all to itself. The biological scrubber relies upon an initial seeding of tiny microorganisms (bacteria) which attach themselves to the internal media substrate or packing providing both a place to attach and to breed and multiply all the time coming in direct contact with the contaminated air. The bacteria are utilized to breakdown and digest contaminants, and it feeds on the contaminants as a food source which allows it to not only live but continue to grow and multiply.

When utilizing a Biological Odor Scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment and removal the by-product that is produced during the reaction is a waste in the form of Sulphuric Acid which is produced as the Sulphur is consumed as a food source. The Sulphuric acid waste lowers the pH of the recirculating water and can create an unhealthy 

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, caustic, wastewater, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubber (with audio)

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 28, 2019 2:48:10 PM
Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubber (audio)

Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Formula and the Molar mass of H2S

What is Hydrogen Sulfide? H2S is a naturally occurring chemical compound that is created in nature with the decay of organic material. Hydrogen sulfide formula is a chemical compound with a molecular formula comprised of (2) Hydrogen atoms and (1) one Sulfur atom. The formula is displayed as H2S. The gas is a colorless hydride gas and is often known as the “Rotten egg gas”. This gas is very dangerous as it is poisonous and toxic to all forms of life. It is also very corrosive and is flammable. The H2S molar mass is 34.1 g/mol and it has a melting point of -76 F (-60 C) and a melting point of –115.6F or (-82C).

Hydrogen sulfide gas is also created more often from a byproduct of a manufacturing process or from the removal of water or waste water treatment systems. In waste water as organic material decays H2S is released and must be captured and treated to protect both human lives, reduce corrosion, and reduce odor complaints. During the manufacturing operations at refineries, pulp mills, and mining hydrogen sulfide gas is produced. These higher levels of H2S are released during the manufacturing process and must be captured and neutralized to protect human life and prevent excessive corrosion. At higher concentration you cannot even smell the gas and it is not distinguishable as the “rotten egg” which makes it even more dangerous and drives the need for equipment known as Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubbers, Fume scrubbers, or Odor Control Scrubbers.

According to the “Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry who work within certain industries are exposed daily to higher levels of Hydrogen Sulfide gas than the normal public. Because the gas is also heavier than air it will settle into lower places like manholes, tanks, basements and it will travel across the ground filling in low level areas. To protect the public OSHA has set guidelines and rules known as “Permissible Exposure Limits” (PEL). A PEL is the legal limit a worker may be exposed to a chemical substance. The PEL limit for Hydrogen Sulfide is ten parts per million (10 ppm) over an eight-hour period.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, wastewater, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Formula, Molar mass, Hydrogen Sulfide formula, molar mass h2s

Forced Draft Degasification Pre and Post Cation And Anion Exchange

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 23, 2018 7:49:53 AM

In the production and purification of water for industry

there are many types of different processes available to remove harmful minerals and gases from the water stream but the most effective process and most cost effective from both a capital investment and operational cost is a “Forced Draft Degasification System” (Degasifier).

Degasification is used in a wide range of water processes for industrial and municipal applications which extend from the production of chemicals to the production of semiconductors and in all applications the need to remove contaminants from the water and dissolved gases is key to achieving the end results needed in the industrial water process. Water from the ground often contains elements such as calcium carbonate, manganese, iron, salts, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur just to name a few of the basic contaminants and these naturally occurring elements can cause serious damage and consequences to process equipment such as boiler systems, piping, membranes, and cation and anion exchange resins used in the demineralization process.

Calcium carbonate can dissolve in water under certain pH ranges forming carbonic acid and releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) gases. These gases are not only very corrosive to equipment like boiler feed systems and boiler tubes but also attack the actual resin beds found in cation and anion softening and demineralization system causing an increase in regeneration and chemical consumption and resin bed replacement.

By incorporating a Force Draft Degasification system you can remove dissolved gasses

like CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to as low as 99.999% and improve the cation and anion system performance, extend the resin bed life, and lower the operating cost of the water treatment process.

Quite often Forced Draft Degasification is utilized “post” treatment to also remove newly formed dissolved gases prior to entering the boiler feed system to prevent corrosion damage within the tubes and feed system and pumps. These gases are easily removed with the forced draft degasifier at a much lower cost than chemical additives or liquid cell degasification that requires higher capital cost and much higher operating cost.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, aluminum, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Langilier index (LSI), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, feed water, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Sour Gas Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 28, 2018 12:31:07 PM

The Term Sour Gas

refers to any natural gas or other gas that contains high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The H2S is typically naturally occurring and found in deposits of natural gas and when there are concentrations above 5.7 milligrams per cubic meter or 4 milligrams per cubic meter when tested under standard temperature and pressure. At these levels the industry classifies the gas as “Sour.” Of course there are variations to this classification dependent upon agency an organization.

A Sour gas is not to be confused with an acidic gas 

although one could be both a sour gas is strictly defined by having large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and is usually accompanied by having mercaptans which adds to the foul smell and odor. The term is often used in the oil refinery business and when gases contain sour gas the process to remove the hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans is referred to as “Sweetening”. The most common method to “sweeten” and remove the sour gas is by processing the gas through an “amine process” which removes the harmful gas.

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Topics: odor control, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, Amine, H2S Degasifier

Caustic Scrubber for Sodium Hydroxide (with audio)

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:51:00 AM
Caustic Scrubber (audio)

Caustic solution for Sodium hydroxide water treatment

There are many industries that require the use of a caustic scrubber which is considered a chemical scrubber and they range from the municipal industry, mining, semiconductor markets, pulp and paper and chemical refining.  There is a wide variety of industrial processes that generate noxious or corrosive off gases that require treatment and a comparison is made about biological Vs. chemical.  Often biological scrubbers have limitations due to concentrations, composition, or temperature of the contaminants and if the gas stream contains acid fumes then a biological scrubber is quickly ruled out.

Odor Control E-BookThe odor control selection is often fraught with choices of capital cost over operational cost and quite often comes down to familiarity from the designer or purchaser.  It is always a good idea to freshen up on the industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s before selecting the final solution.  If the off gas source that needs to be treated is hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or some other type of gas stream produced by an acid or ammonia it will often require neutralization for human health reasons and to protect equipment or may be required to meet regulatory compliance. Caustic scrubbers may be either vertical or horizontal by design, but both utilize a packed media bed of either random packing or trays to allow the gas fumes to meet the recirculating caustic solution which then forces the reaction to occur.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, caustic, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, caustic solution, sodium hydroxide water treatment

Odor Control Selection

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2018 9:03:00 AM

What type of Odor Control Scrubber do I select?

It's a common question many customers and design professionals ask in the Odor Control Industry when it comes to selecting, engineering, and making the decision on the best type of odor control process to utilize to treat off gases and noxious odors. Selecting an odor control system is comparable to choosing a car in many ways because you have a lot of different options to choose from and each odor control scrubber comes in different types to address the different variations within the industry.  As an example, there are odor control scrubbers designed to treat “ammonia” gases and other ones to treat“acid” off gases.  Or there are odor control scrubbers that utilize “acid” or “caustic” as the scrubbing reagent in the process to neutralize an off gas.

Odor control scrubbers also come with different purchase prices and each have different operating costs associated with them.  It is always important to analyze the operating cost of the odor control solution you select because there may be several different types that may all perform equally and each may have varying initial purchase costs but you should ask the question and understand “what will be the continued operating cost” be for the type of odor control system selected.  And how long will the scrubber I selected last before additional costs are needed for any major repairs to keep it running? When you are a design professional if you choose the odor control system that is difficult or expensive to maintain then you can be assured you will have continued phone calls from customers looking for answers and solutions.  

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, degasifier, gases

Odor Control with Artificial Intelligence

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 14, 2018 8:55:00 AM

Would it be possible for our odor control scrubbers to communicate with us and tell us when there are problems? Or when they need service? With the new technological revolution, we are now into this is quickly becoming a reality. DeLoach Industries is rapidly changing how water treatment and odor control and air emissions are treated with new advancements in artificial intelligence and integration into proven technologies.

Most operators will tell you that to keep and maintain an odor control system whether its Biological Vs. chemical can be quite challenging depending on the type and source of the off gas to be treated and depending on the type of chemical reagents being utilized such as acid or caustic solutions. When odor control systems such as a biological scrubber are met with a varying flow rates, corrosive gases, or spiking concentrations an odor control system can be daunting to keep in balance and operating efficiency. But what if they could think or communicate with other devices or even operators for themselves? What if they could make corrections in caustic feed rates because of ammonia (NH3) concentration spikes, order chemicals like caustic or acid for pH control, and even inform us when they anticipate a problem for either the odor control scrubber or another critical component that it depends upon? That time has now arrived that’s to DeLoach Industries new advancements to their equipment systems.

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Topics: degasification, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, gases

Biological Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 9, 2018 8:18:00 AM

 

So what is a scrubber?

Biological Scrubber is a type of wet odor control scrubber that treats and removes contaminants from an air stream that only utilizes caustic typically to control the pH of the re-circulation solution. There are several types of odor control and chemical fume scrubbers on the market today and each of them play a role in the treatment of noxious or corrosive gases in the industry. Biological scrubbers are commonly utilized in municipal applications for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases that are removed from a water or waste water treatment process.  In water treatment equipment such as a “degasification” or “decarbonation” tower strips the hydrogen sulfide gas from the water and exhaust the gas from an exhaust port.  These gases are captured and sent via an air duct system to the biological scrubber.  Hydrogen gases captured at a wastewater treatment process which may include the treatment plant, lift station or head-works facility are also sent using a PVC or FRP duct system to the biological scrubber.

So how does a Biological Scrubber work?

Interesting enough a biological scrubber utilizes tiny microorganisms (bacteria) to breakdown and digest contaminants and the bacteria feed on the contaminants and utilize this as a feed source to live and grow.  When utilizing a biological scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment the by-product waste is acid from the digested H2S.  This lowers the pH and requires the use of caustic to buffer the water and nutrient solution that is

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Topics: water treatment issues, odor control, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, RO system, H2S Degasifier, what is a scrubber

Odor Control verses Acid Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 6, 2018 9:00:00 AM

When evaluating off gases that need to be treated and prior to the designing of the correct type of odor control system for a project there are several key items that should be considered before making a selection. It is best to read the article called “industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s to refresh or learn a wider prospective on odor control scrubbers and their operational challenges. 

The first question is what is the source of the off gas or odor problem and is it corrosive, dangerous, or just a noxious odor?  A design professional should fully examine what types of contaminants are in the gas air stream to identify harmful and corrosive elements such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), or even caustic (NaOH).   Is the odorous gas that is being generated a result of a “water treatment plant”, “ waste water treatment plant”, “industrial water treatment plant”, or a “manufacturing process” operation,?  Perhaps the odorous gas is being generated from a collection systemsuch as a “lift station” or “head-works” facility?  If the odorous gas is being generated as the result of the removal of hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) from a water treatment process as found at a water treatment plant then the odorous gas can be corrosive, dangerous, and noxious and it will require either treatment utilizing reagent chemicals such as caustic.  The production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) typically is the residual result from treating water and removing the H2S from a water source.   Odor Control E-Book

 

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier

Ammonia Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 2, 2018 9:00:00 AM

The type of Odor Control wet scrubber selected for the treatment and neutralization of Ammonia (NH3) gases depends on several variables including the type and source of the ammonia gas and whether or not it is “Free” ammonia and or unionized. Ammonia is a very miscible and stable molecule with strong hydrogen bonds which makes it very soluble in water and can be very difficult to treat without the use of a properly designed and sized ammonia scrubber. The concentrations, air flow rates, temperature of the gas stream, and chemical reagent being utilized such as caustic to first remove and then treat the ammonia all plays a significant role on the efficiency of the ammonia scrubber. Unlike other types of “odor control scrubbers” an ammonia scrubber is much more sensitive to variables such as the gas stream temperature because of the solubility of ammonia.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

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