DELOACH BLOG

Ph Probes and the Importance of Periodic Re-Calibration

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Aug 25, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In many water treatment and chemical processes,

it is a requirement to keep track of the pH of the water or product stream. In DeLoach Industries equipment such as degasification systems, or odor control scrubbers, pH measurement is critical to control the chemical reactions happening within the treatment system. PH is an indication of the acidic vs alkaline nature of a fluid. An acidic fluid will have a greater concentration of H+ hydrogen ions, while an alkaline fluid will have a greater concentration of OH- hydroxide ions. This electrochemical nature is used in the construction, reading, and maintenance of electronic pH probes.

PH probes are generally glass,

and will contain a reference element, and a sensing element. When the pH probe is immersed in the fluid to be measured, the electrical potential difference between the sensing element and the reference element is amplified by electronics, and the resulting voltage is used in a calculation to determine pH from differential electron potential. As a pH probe remains in service, ion exchange will slowly change the electrical potential of the sensing element, the reference element, or both. This happens because the hydrogen ions are small enough to travel through the glass sensor body and cause reference potential shift over time. This is a normal behavior for all pH probes and is the reason why pH probes must be periodically calibrated.

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide, gases, RO system, Aqua Farming

Decarbonation, The Removal of CO2 from Water.

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Forced Draft Degasification Pre and Post Cation And Anion Exchange

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 23, 2018 7:49:53 AM

In the production and purification of water for industry there are many types of different processes available to remove harmful minerals and gases from the water stream but the most effective process and most cost effective from both a capital investment and operational cost is a “Forced Draft Degasification System” (Degasifier).

Degasification is used in a wide range of water processes

for industrial and municipal applications which extend from the production of chemicals to the production of semiconductors and in all applications the need to remove contaminants from the water and dissolved gases is key to achieving the end results needed in the industrial water process. Water from the ground often contains elements such as calcium carbonate, manganese, iron, salts, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur just to name a few of the basic contaminants and these naturally occurring elements can cause serious damage and consequences to process equipment such as boiler systems, piping, membranes, and cation and anion exchange resins used in the demineralization process.

Calcium carbonate can dissolve in water under certain pH ranges forming carbonic acid and releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) gases. These gases are not only very corrosive to equipment like boiler feed systems and boiler tubes but also attack the actual resin beds found in cation and anion softening and demineralization system causing an increase in regeneration and chemical consumption and resin bed replacement.

By incorporating a Force Draft Degasification system you can remove dissolved gasses

like CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to as low as 99.999% and improve the cation and anion system performance, extend the resin bed life, and lower the operating cost of the water treatment process.

Quite often Forced Draft Degasification is utilized “post” treatment to also remove newly formed dissolved gases prior to entering the boiler feed system to prevent corrosion damage within the tubes and feed system and pumps. These gases are easily removed with the forced draft degasifier at a much lower cost than chemical additives or liquid cell degasification that requires higher capital cost and much higher operating cost.

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, aluminum, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Langilier index (LSI), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, feed water, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Decarbonation of Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 7, 2018 10:16:40 AM

Requires an application commonly referred to

as either “Degasification” or "Decarbonation" and it requires the use of a piece of water treatment equipment called either a “degasifier” or a “decarbonator”. Both of these are similar in nature and are designed to remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the incoming water. A properly designed decarbonator can remove 99.99% of the free carbon dioxide gas that is present in the water stream. One of the primary reason for utilizing a decarbonator or degasifier for the removal of CO2 is the raise the pH of the water without the need to add caustic.

The other reason is the remove the CO2 prior to treating the water with Ion Exchange which utilizes Anion or Cation resins to reduce the regeneration cycles for the resin beds. High concentrations of CO2 consume the ion charge within the resins and require more frequent regeneration cycles. The difference between anion and cation resins resins is that one is positively charged (anion) and the other is negatively charged (cation), cation resins, which attract positive ions with their negative charge.

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Industrial Boiler Feed Water For Steam

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 10:01:00 AM

In the USA market alone it is estimated the manufacturing industry consumes over 400 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water to produce steam. Approximately 60 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water is sent to the blow down drains in manufacturing. Another approximate 300 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of steam is consumed for direct injection. All this steam required in manufacturing shares the same common need, “water”. But not only water but “purified and treated” water is needed. For without the treatment process US manufacturers would face constant shut downs and increased capital spending driving their cost of goods through the roof. One form of water treatment to protect boilers is degasification and deaeration.

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, De-Aeration, steam generation, steam generating boilers, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Why Aeration Is The Most Cost Effective Way To Oxidize Iron

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 14, 2017 2:36:50 PM

By definition, “oxidation” is the loss of electrons from a reducing agent. We commonly use the phrase “the process has been oxidized”. Electrons carry negative charges and the oxidation process results in an increase of positive valence. Oxidation reduces the number of electrons orbiting any specific element which in turn causes the element to bond with oxygen when there is oxygen present because it has an attraction for those electrons.

 In water iron can be present in several forms but the most commonly found iron is in its soluble state as ferrous bicarbonate (C2H4FeO6). Ferrous iron has a positive two valence. As ferrous iron is oxidized, the number of electrons will be reduced and the iron develops a valence of positive three, ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)3. The most cost effective way to oxidize iron in water is to fully aerate the water utilizing an “aeration tower”. The aerator is very similar to a degasification tower or air stripper as it utilizes either forced draft or induced draft air movement to create the enriched oxygen environment needed. Typically the aerator will rely upon the “impingement process” to reshape the water molecules and expose the iron to oxygen in order to force the electrons to flow and thus the iron to oxidize.

Read More

Topics: aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment

Subscribe to our blog

Recent Posts