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Decarbonation of Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 20, 2023 11:26:13 AM

Requires an application commonly referred to as either “Degasification” or "Decarbonation" and it requires the use of a piece of water treatment equipment called either a “degasifier” or a “decarbonator”.

Both of these are similar in nature and are designed for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) removal from the incoming water. A properly designed decarbonator can remove 99.99% of the free carbon dioxide gas that is present in the water stream. One of the primary reasons for utilizing a decarbonator or degasifier for the removal of carbon dioxide gas is the raise the pH of the water without the need to add caustic. resulting in high-purity water.

The other reason is the remove the CO2 prior to treating the water with Ion Exchange which utilizes Anion or Cation resins to reduce the regeneration cycles for the resin beds. High concentrations of CO2 consume the ion charge within the resins and require more frequent regeneration cycles. The difference between anion and cation resins is that one is positively charged (anion) and the other is negatively charged (cation), cation resins, attract positive ions with their negative charge.

The term decarbonation describes the process of the removal of suspended gas or the conversion of carbonic acids into free Carbon Dioxide. Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) is stable at normal ambient anhydrous conditions. However, Carbonic Acid decomposes when not stable and in the presence of any water molecules to form carbon dioxide (CO2).  The Carbonic acid breaks down when present in water and it is converted to a gas based upon certain conditions. It is common to have CO2 present in water requiring a decarbonation process when utilizing certain types of water filtration such as membrane filtration with reverse osmosis or it can be present when the need to adjust pH is required. When removing (CO2) the process is often referred to as “Decarbonation”, when removing (H2S) Hydrogen Sulfide the process is often referred to as “Degasification”. 

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier

Decarbonation the Removal of CO2 from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 19, 2023 3:10:22 PM

The Basics of Water Decarbonation

and the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in a solution in relation to the gas's partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the result of ph control and balance. In either case, the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provides the most cost-effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water releases a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as the cubic foot of airflow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, removal of CO2 from water

Using Aeration To Remove Iron from Water!

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 22, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Converting Ferrous (Fe+2) (soluble) iron to Ferric (Fe+3) (Particulate/Solid form).

The iron must first be exposed to air or an oxidizing agent. Aeration System is the most cost-effective method to oxidize ferrous iron for its removal from water. In many areas around the globe, municipal and industrial operations need to remove naturally occurring iron (Fe) from the water to prevent damage to other equipment and improve water quality. Removing iron from the water must first be oxidized using the most widely accepted and cost-effective method called aeration. The aeration process changes the iron from its Ferrous (Fe+2) state (soluble) to ferric (Fe+3) colloidal participation. Did you know that Iron occurs naturally and is found in the earth’s crust? It occurs in both groundwater as well as surface waters and is not known to cause any harmful effects on humans or animals.

Iron does cause problems, though, for municipal facilities and their customers by impacting laundry operations and causing stains on buildings and on plumbing fixtures. Iron also promotes and facilitates the growth of iron bacteria in water, creating a problem for distribution lines and piping systems. Once the lines become blocked, this impacts the ability to distribute water to the customer. Iron bacteria also become detectible even at low concentrations and impact the taste of the water. The U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standard set a recommended maximum level of 0.3 mg/L in public water supplies.

In industrial applications, iron can cause server damage in boiler systems.

Cation and Anion systems, piping and nozzles, and other equipment. In addition, for other industries such as food and beverage, brewery, semiconductor, or the production of chemical products, iron can interfere with the manufacturing or brewing and canning process, lowering the quality of the final product. In groundwater and anaerobic surface water, iron is normally present in its soluble form called “Ferrous” iron Fe+2 when the pH is in a certain range. When the same water is in contact with air, that allows the air to diffuse into the water, or when any form of an oxidizing chemical is added to the water, the iron is converted into its oxidized form called “Ferric” Fe+3, becoming a solid. The ferric iron becomes visible and impacts the turbidity of the water and is typically not accepted by customers because the ferric iron within the water when in contact with surfaces, will create colloidal precipitates causing discoloring to all that it encounters over time.

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Topics: aeration, Ferrous Iron, Iron

Sour Gas Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 28, 2018 12:31:07 PM

Treating Hydrogen Sulfide for Environmental Safety

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Topics: odor control, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, Amine, H2S Degasifier

Servicing your Degasification Tower or Decarbonator for Co2 Removal

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 28, 2018 8:15:00 AM

When do you know if your decarbonation system needs service?

When a degasification tower or decarbonator becomes fouled, several indicators identify you may have a problem or that it's time to clean your system. If the efficiency of the degasifier has dropped, you will see an increased consumption rate of chemicals. If you remove less hydrogen sulfide gas from the degasifier, chlorine consumption will increase. When you increase the amount of chemical reaction occurring in the water, you will see an increase in the TSS levels and a drop in water quality. As the H2S reacts with chlorine, more solids will form and be present in the water, and the water quality will diminish.

Another indicator of a fouling condition is the pH adjustment in the Industrial Water Treatment industry. You are required to meet the set standards. As the performance of the tower drops, the removal of CO2 will also drop, leaving a higher pH level than may be desired. A quick inspection to check out the media bed should be performed. Also, do not forget to inspect the distribution system at the top of your tower and remember that all distribution systems are not alike, and inspecting the condition of each of them may require additional effort on your part. With a header lateral system, you need to inspect the distribution nozzles, but with a Weir or Tray type, you will need to check the amount of scale or fouling building up on the Weir edge or in the bottom of the pan. If the Weir edge becomes fouled unevenly, it will create "Channeling" of the water and increase the initial hydraulic load to a concentrated point on the media bed.

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Topics: water treatment issues, blower maintenance, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, degasifier, Deagasification, decarbonation of water

Are All Distribution Systems Equal?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 21, 2018 8:01:00 AM

Do you think all distribution systems are made equal? 

if you do you may be surprised that there is a lot of variation in manufacturing protocols for aerators, degasifiers, and decarbonators.  Aerators are often found in use at Industrial Water Treatment and municipal water treatment facilities around the globe. 

For water treatment, you may be surprised to learn that one of the key items that separate different types of aerators and decarbonators for water treatment is the type of distribution system it utilizes.  To improve Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) removal you need to select the best distribution system for the tower and make sure it's maintained. Now, there are many types of aerators in general and the term is used broadly. From floating pond aerators to wastewater aerators, to vertical tower aerators, decarbonators, and degasifiers for industrial water treatment aerators.  We will focus on vertical tower aerators for industrial water treatment.  All types of Aerators and even degasifiers and even decarbonators and Odor Control Scrubbers require some type of distribution system to begin the process of gas transfer and to remove Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) from water or Carbon Dioxide (CO2).  It is important to evenly distribute the water or chemical solution across the media bed. 

There are several types of distribution systems available and the three most common ones you will see on the marketplace are the “Tray” type, Weir, or the header lateral utilizing gas release “Nozzles”.  

The selection of what type of distribution system is typically driven by the marketing side of who is selling you the tower.  But in terms of real performance a distribution system utilizing a nozzle system will outperform a tray-type distributor.  All packed towers are designed utilizing Henry’s Law Constant” theory of chemistry and what all towers rely upon is some type of method to break the surface tension of the water and expose the molecules of gases so that they either can escape or can be introduced to a reaction agent.

When towers are designed it is important to properly hydraulically load the top of the media bed.  This is considered " Degasification Basics". This is important for many reasons and we will address these points in future updates.  When using a properly designed nozzle distribution system such as a DeLoach Industries header lateral system then you get the benefit of both proper hydraulic load across the bed and you also gain anywhere from 4-10% removal efficiency depending upon the application.  When looking at a chemical scrubber versus a biological scrubber you will notice they too have very different distribution systems. DeLoach Industries, Inc. has learned over its 60 years in business how to maximize gas transfer release.  If designed and built properly the gas release process or interaction process (if designing a scrubber) has already begun “before” it enters the media bed.

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Topics: water treatment issues, aeration, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, decarbonator, degasifier

What Makes DeLoach Industries Unique?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 20, 2017 3:43:33 PM


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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, fiberglass, About DeLoach Industries, fabrication, biological scrubber, Chemical Odor, media packing, pH levels, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, decarbonator, boiler system, distillation, degasifier, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Biological Odor Control Scrubber, Biological odor control, removal of CO2 from water, Deagasification, decarbonation of water, Sand filters, Filter Media, municipal water systems, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., Drinking Water

Fiberglass Process - Hand Lay-Up & Contact Molding

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 14, 2017 4:08:42 PM

Fiberglass is a versatile material

Its durability, corrosion resistance, and strength-to-weight ratio make it a popular choice in various industries. These qualities make it a great choice for a variety of applications. These qualities make it an excellent choice for many applications.

At DeLoach Industries Inc., we specialize in fiberglass manufacturing methods, including the hand lay-up contact molding process. In this video, we will discuss this particular process and its application in creating small components for our fiberglass aerator tanks.

The hand lay-up contact molding process is a manual technique. It involves layering fiberglass materials onto a mold.

This creates a desired shape or component. It is a common method used in the production of small to medium-sized fiberglass parts. Let's take a closer look at the steps involved in this process.

Mold Preparation:

To prepare the mold, use a sturdy material such as metal or fiberglass, and clean the surface thoroughly. Apply a mold release agent to prevent the fiberglass from sticking.

Fiberglass Material Selection:

Next, we select the appropriate fiberglass material based on the specific requirements of the component. Fiberglass materials are available in various forms, such as woven fabric, chopped strand mats, or continuous strand roving. The selection depends on factors like strength, flexibility, and the desired finish of the final product.

We apply a fiberglass gel coat to the mold. This creates a smooth and aesthetically pleasing surface finish.

Before creating the component, we apply the gel coat, which is a resin blended with pigment, onto the mold surface. This serves to create a protective layer that enhances the durability and appearance of the final product. The gel coat application is an essential step in the fiberglass manufacturing process.

The gel coat can be applied using two common methods: spraying or brushing. When spraying, a specialized spray gun evenly distributes the gel coat onto the mold, ensuring consistent coverage. This method is efficient for large-scale production or complex shapes where an even application is crucial.

Brushing is a manual process. It involves brushing the gel coat onto the mold surface.

This provides more control over the thickness of the coating. It also ensures that all areas are properly coated. This technique is often preferred for smaller projects or intricate details that require precision.

The gel coat serves multiple purposes. It acts as a protective barrier between the mold and the fiberglass layers. This prevents any potential damage or adhesion issues. Additionally, the gel coat provides an attractive and smooth surface finish for the final component, enhancing its aesthetic appeal.

The gel coat contains a pigment that provides a variety of colors. This allows for customization and ensures the component meets the desired specifications. By selecting the appropriate pigment, the component can be aesthetically pleasing while also meeting any branding or design requirements.

Furthermore, the gel coat plays a vital role in the overall structural integrity of the fiberglass component. It acts as a barrier.

It protects against external elements such as UV radiation, moisture, and chemicals. This safeguards the underlying layers of fiberglass. This helps maintain their strength and longevity.

Overall, the application of the gel coat is a crucial step in the fiberglass manufacturing process. Whether applied through spraying or brushing, it creates a protective layer, enhances the component's appearance, and contributes to its structural integrity. We carefully consider the gel coat and application method to guarantee the final product meets the desired standards. These standards include quality, durability, and visual appeal.

Layering the Fiberglass:

After the gel coat has hardened, we add the fiberglass layers. We soak each layer in resin and carefully place it onto the mold surface to ensure proper bonding. We repeat this process until we achieve the desired thickness and durability of the component. To increase strength in specific areas, we may include additional reinforcements such as fiberglass mats or woven fabric.

We use a catalyzed resin, typically polyester or epoxy, to bind the fibers of each layer of fiberglass together. This creates a solid composite structure.

We call this process resin application and consolidation. We evenly spread the resin using brushes or rollers and remove excess air to ensure proper consolidation. This eliminates any voids.


Once we complete the lay-up process, we allow the composite structure to cure. The curing time and temperature depend on the resin system we use. During this stage, the resin undergoes a chemical reaction, transforming from a liquid to a solid state. This bonds the fiberglass layers together.

Once the component has fully hardened, we meticulously remove it from the mold and perform the finishing touches. To achieve the desired dimensions and surface finish, we trim and sand away any excess material or flash.

For a polished finish, we can employ additional techniques such as coating and painting. These techniques serve to meet specific requirements or enhance the component's appearance.

DeLoach Industries Inc. specializes in hand lay-up contact molding. We utilize this method to produce tiny parts for our induced draft aerators. The components are essential for improving the performance and efficiency of our aerators. Our aerators find application in various fields, including water and wastewater treatment systems.

Our experienced professionals possess in-depth knowledge and expertise in fiberglass manufacturing techniques. They follow industry best practices and quality standards carefully. This ensures the production of high-quality fiberglass components. These components meet our customers' specifications and performance requirements.

Are you interested in learning about our fiberglass manufacturing techniques? Or, do you want to know how our induced draft aerators can benefit your specific needs? We're dedicated to providing detailed information, answering any questions you may have, and offering personalized solutions.

Contact DeLoach Industries Inc. at (941) 371-4995 to speak with our experts. We're excited to assist you and provide the top-notch fiberglass solutions you require.

For more information or to learn more contact the professionals at DeLoach Industries Inc. at (941) 371-4995.

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Related Blog: Why Aeration is the Most Cost-Effective Way to Oxidize Iron 

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Topics: aeration, fiberglass

Degasification Tower Design: Square Vs Round?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 10, 2017 2:32:37 PM
What to consider when designing your degasification or Decarbonation water treatment system.
When designing a water treatment system the need for aeration or degasification is quite common, as it is the most cost-effective way to treat water and obtain the highest results. For the oxidation of iron, or the removal of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), aeration and degasification remain the most efficient methods to treat potable and industrial water. So how do you know if you should select a round or a square aerator or degasifier, and when is one more appropriate than the other? The selection of a square-shaped aeration or degasification tower always provides the owner with more! Why? Well, it’s simple, first think about a 6 ft. diameter round tower and how much square footage is available for use and how much space it takes up. A 6-ft. diameter equals 28.26 square feet of area, whereas a 6-foot square tower provides 36 square feet of area. That’s over 25% more surface area than in the round tower. Both tower designs take up the same area on the ground when you consider the installation space needed for the “footprint”.
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Topics: degasification, aeration, water treatment

What Are The Differences Between Slat Tray Vs Random Pack Media?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 27, 2017 4:44:39 PM

The first step is understanding the chemical analysis of the water you will treat.

Suppose this is an aeration process for iron (Fe) removal. In that case, it is vital to understand the water's concentration, pH, and alkalinity and the amount of calcium carbonate or other minerals present. Once you've determined that the water is suitable for the desired treatment process, you must choose equipment based on the water's volume and flow rate. Remember that water treatment equipment is not one-size-fits-all and is vitally important when selecting equipment to consider your water conditions.

If a tower's internals is damaged due to the weight of random pack media or fouled water and airflow, the pack media will become completely clogged, and water flow will be blocked. This will result in an expensive shutdown and repair. It is advised that routine service cleanings are carried out under a service contract.

For heavy fouling conditions, a slat tray media selection can save you both downtime and costs. Slat trays provide an anti-fouling benefit based upon the design intended to “shed” particulate as it is formed. They still need to be cleaned in heavy conditions, but far less often, and cleaning is more manageable. The tower process application requires high removal efficiency, then loose fill media may be the only choice unless a pretreatment tower with slat trays is installed in front of the process. Each application must be evaluated on its merits and reviewed for potential fouling and anticipated operating cost.

If fouled completely, loose fill, random pack media will block water flow and air and can, in some circumstances, become so heavy that the weight can damage the internals of a tower. This will cause a shutdown and more expenses to remove and repair. Routine service cleanings under a service contract are highly recommended.

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Topics: degasification, odor control, aeration, water treatment

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