DELOACH BLOG

Technology to Remove Per- & Polyfluorinated Substances

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Dec 14, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Per-and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) have been used for decades in many consumer products, and they are man-made and have a high residual time in the environment. These chemicals are used for various purposes, including nonstick surfaces, heat protection of circuits, water resistance, fighting fire as they are utilized in fire depression foam, and many other industrial applications. The difficult thing about PFAS is that the very reason they work so well on so many manufactured products is why they are so challenging to get rid of or treat once they have entered the environment or water supply. PFAS are being more and more regulated, and requirements are being put in place by many states and agencies to require the treatment and removal of PFAS and safeguard and protect drinking water.

PFAS are soluble in water, and they are not a volatile organic chemical (VOC), so traditional treatment methods such as utilizing an air stripping tower or degasification system are not effective methods to remove PFAS. One of the first technologies to remove PFAS from drinking water and the environment is activated carbon absorption. In recent years, utilizing ion exchange resins has proven effective and is gaining popularity for the treatment method. Ion exchange resins attach and bond with the PFAS and remove it effectively from the water. Some chemicals tested and studied with success include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS). In addition to these technologies, reverse osmosis utilizing high-pressure membranes has an 80-90% effective rate and has proven to be technically efficient in removing PFAS. An R.O. process produces a concentrated waste stream.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, ION Exchange Resin, wastewater, RO system, Deagasification

Pressure Filters

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Dec 3, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In water treatment, it is often required to remove small particulate matter from the raw water. One of the most cost-effective ways to accomplish this is with a pressure filter. Sometimes referred to as “sand filters,” a pressure filter consists of a rigid filter vessel capable of withstanding internal pressure, combined with pipework to distribute and collect water and one or multiple types of filter media. Pressure filters, commonly used in municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, and swimming pools. Typical pressure filter construction is shown below:

At the top of the filter vessel, a distributor is used to break up and distribute the water flow so that there are no concentrated flow jets that stir up the media bed. Inflow distributors are usually oriented to direct flow at the top of the vessel to disperse the flow further. Below the distributor is the primary filter bed. The filter bed contains fine-grained media, most often sand, including crushed anthracite coal, activated charcoal, garnet, or other granular bulk products. The media bed is the thickest layer in the filter vessel and is the region that does the actual filtering of the water or other fluid. Below the media bed will be one or more support layers. These will usually be larger-sized gravel that is chosen to support the filter bed while allowing high flow through the support layer and into the outflow header. The outflow header can take several forms but is often composed of a large central pipe with multiple smaller pipes or “laterals” attached. The laterals are slotted or perforated. This allows the pressurized water to flow into the laterals and out through the outflow header into the downstream components of the water treatment system.

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Topics: particulate matter, filters, Pressure filter, Sand filters, Filter Media, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., backwash, automated control systems, actuated valves, pump controls

Understanding Pipe Sizing

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Nov 5, 2021 1:00:00 PM

One issue that I run into relatively often with new technicians, or with some non-technical project managers is confusion over pipe sizing.  A typical example looks like this: I ask a new technician-in-training to get me a count of 1-inch pipe that we have in storage. I take the info, and then later find out that what the trainee inventoried was the 3/4-inch pipe. The reason for this confusion lies in the way that pipe sizes are named. The 1-inch, 3-inch, 6-inch etc. pipe designations are closer to names than sizes. This is because pipe sizing goes by a nominal size standard which is somewhat non-intuitive.

For many people, if they are asked to locate pipe of a given size, 3-1/2” for example, they will take a tape measure and instinctually measure the outside diameter of the pipe, which will lead them to an incorrect identification. This has to do with the sizing conventions for pipes. Pipes are sized using a nominal pipe size (NPS) designation, and a pipe schedule (SCH) to fully define the size. The nominal size refers only to the approximate inside diameter, and the schedule refers to the wall thickness of the pipe. Because of this, the inner and outer dimensions from a pipe do not directly align with the “name” of the pipe size

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Topics: PVC, Pipe Size, Schedule 40, Schedule 80

Chemical Compatibility

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Oct 29, 2021 1:01:00 PM

In process control systems, it is often required to handle fluids that have a harsh chemical nature. In these cases, it is necessary to be aware of material chemical compatibility. Chemical compatibility is a general term referring to the way a specific chemical interacts with a specific material. This information is taken into consideration when selecting materials of construction for tanks, valves, pipework, tubing, and other devices that may encounter harsh chemicals. Common chemical types that are used in process systems are acids, bases, corrosives and oxidizers, and hydrocarbons. Typical chemical resistant materials include natural and synthetic rubbers, vinyl polymers, fluoropolymers, and stainless steel. In order to determine which materials are compatible with certain chemicals, a chemical compatibility chart is often used. A chemical compatibility chart contains tabulated data about how a given material interacts with a given chemical.

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Topics: degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, caustic, Decarbonation, decarbonator, degasifier, Deagasification

Using Aeration To Remove Iron from Water!

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Oct 22, 2021 1:00:00 PM

Converting Ferrous (Fe+2) (soluble) iron to Ferric (Fe+3) (Particulate/Solid form).

The iron must first be exposed to air or another form of an oxidizing agent. Aeration is the most cost-effective method to oxidize ferrous iron for its removal from water. In many areas around the globe, municipal and industrial operations have the need to remove naturally occurring iron (Fe) from the water to both prevent damage to other equipment as well as to improve water quality. To remove iron from the water it first must be oxidized using the most widely accepted and cost-effective method called aeration. The aeration process changes the iron from its Ferrous (Fe+2) state (soluble) to ferric (Fe+3) a colloidal participate. Did you know that Iron occurs naturally and is found in the earth’s crust? It occurs in both groundwater as well as surface waters and is not known to cause any harmful effects on humans or animals.

Iron does cause problems though for municipal facilities and their customers by impacting laundry operations, causing stains on buildings, on plumbing fixtures. Iron also promotes and facilitates the growth of iron bacteria in water that creates a problem for distribution lines and piping systems. Once the lines become blocked this impacts the ability to distribute water to the customer. The presence of iron bacteria also becomes detectible even at low concentrations and impacts the taste of the water. The U.S Public Health Service Drinking Water Standard set a recommend maximum level of 0.3 mg/L in public water supplies.

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Topics: aeration, Ferrous Iron, Iron

Flow Measurement in Water Systems

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Sep 28, 2021 11:45:00 AM

In water treatment systems it is often important to measure the rate at which water is flowing through the system. Data from flow measurement devices can be used to control chemical dosing, set pump speeds, control filter loading rates, inform maintenance programs, and other tasks necessary for operation of a water treatment facility or on key components such as Degasification and Decarbonation systems or Biological Odor Control Systems. As with most types of instrumentation, there is an array of technologies that can be used for the task, each one with various strengths and optimal applications. For modern electronically controlled systems, the most common types of flow sensors used are axial turbine flowmeters, paddlewheel flowmeters, differential pressure / orifice plate flow transducers, and magnetic flowmeters. This article will briefly discuss the technology and features of each of these types.

A turbine flow meter,

consists of a tube that contains supports to hold a multi-bladed metal turbine in the center. The turbine is designed to have close clearance to the walls of the tubing such that nearly all of the water is made to flow through the turbine blades as it travels through the pipe. The turbine is supported on finely finished bearings so that the turbine will spin freely even under very low flows. As the turbine spins, a magnetic pickup located outside of the flowmeter housing is used to sense the tips of the turbine blade spinning past the pickup. An amplifier/transmitter is then used to amplify the pulses and either transmit them directly or convert the pulse frequency into an analog signal that is then sent to a programmable controller for further use elsewhere in the system. One advantage of a turbine flowmeter is that the electronics are separated from the fluid path. The magnetic pickup is the only electronic component, and it is installed outside of the turbine housing, reading the presence of the turbine blade tips through the wall of the sensor body. In clean water applications, this can be advantageous because the magnetic pickup can be replaced if needed without removing the turbine from service. However, the turbine itself covers most of the pipe area and creates back-pressure in the system, requiring increased pumping energy to move a given amount of water. In Industrial Water Treatment or Filtration Treatment,  turbines can also easily become fouled or jammed if they are used to measure water or other fluids with entrained solids, algae or bacteria cultures which cause significant accumulation, or corrosive chemical components that can degrade the turbine bearings.

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Topics: water quality, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, About DeLoach Industries, water plant, pumps, Alkalinity, Safe drinking water, wastewater, Recycling, pharmaceutical water, Aqua Farming, Aquaculture, Pipe Size, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, DeLoach Industries, Inc., actuated valves, pump controls, Drinking Water, Clean Water, Water Test, Water Test Kit, DeLoach Industries, civil engineers

Variable Frequency Drives

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Sep 14, 2021 8:36:06 AM

In an industrial environment,

electric motors are used for a variety of applications. These often include pumping water or other fluids, transporting material on conveyors or lifts, or providing motive force to moving parts of a mechanical device. The electric motor dominates the field whenever something needs to move. Regardless of the end use, all these motors will have one thing in common, a motor controller.

A motor controller is a device with the means to turn the motor on and off, provide circuit protection, and serve as a disconnecting means to render the circuit safe during maintenance. Traditionally, this is done with a direct-on-line (DOL) motor starter. A DOL starter installation consists of a branch breaker combined with a DOL motor starter and overload module. In a typical DOL motor starter installation, the branch breaker will serve as short circuit protection, as well as a means of electrical disconnect. The motor starter unit is essentially a large relay with a magnetic coil and high-power contacts held apart by springs. When the motor is called to run, the magnetic coil is energized, pulling in the contacts and bridging the line side to the load side terminals, allowing power to flow. Once the motor starter has contact, electrical power flows out through an overload disconnect module, and then to the electric motor. The DOL motor starter is a well proven design that is familiar to almost anyone in the industrial space and is still what is found in a majority of applications.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water treatment, water plant, motors, pumps

Ph Probes and Periodic Re-Calibration

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Aug 25, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In many water treatment and chemical processes,

it is a requirement to keep track of the pH of the water or product stream. In DeLoach Industries equipment such as degasification systems, or odor control scrubbers, pH measurement is critical to control the chemical reactions happening within the treatment system. PH is an indication of the acidic vs alkaline nature of a fluid. An acidic fluid will have a greater concentration of H+ hydrogen ions, while an alkaline fluid will have a greater concentration of OH- hydroxide ions. This electrochemical nature is used in the construction, reading, and maintenance of electronic pH probes.

PH probes are generally glass,

and will contain a reference element, and a sensing element. When the pH probe is immersed in the fluid to be measured, the electrical potential difference between the sensing element and the reference element is amplified by electronics, and the resulting voltage is used in a calculation to determine pH from differential electron potential. As a pH probe remains in service, ion exchange will slowly change the electrical potential of the sensing element, the reference element, or both. This happens because the hydrogen ions are small enough to travel through the glass sensor body and cause reference potential shift over time. This is a normal behavior for all pH probes and is the reason why pH probes must be periodically calibrated.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, pH levels of water, iron oxidation, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, ION Exchange Resin, carbon dioxide, gases, RO system, Aqua Farming

Decarbonation the Removal of CO2 from Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2021 2:08:54 PM

The basics of water decarbonation, the removal of CO2 from water

the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). The need to remove (CO2) is essential in most Aquaculture, Municipal, Industrial, and Food & Beverage Processes To understand you must familiarize yourself with Henry’s Law.

Henry's Law defines the method and proportional relationship between the amount of a gas in solution

in relationship to the gases partial pressure in the atmosphere. Often you will see and hear various terms like degasification, decarbonation, aeration, and even air stripping when discussing the removal of dissolved gases and other convertible elements from water. Understanding the impacts that Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can have on both equipment and aquatic life provides the basic reasons why the need to decarbonate water, exists. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can exist naturally in the raw water supply or be the results of ph control and balance. In either case the the process called Decarbonation or Degasification provide the most cost effective and efficient manner to reduce or tally remove (CO2) from the water. In addition to Carbon Dioxide (CO2), water can contain a variety of other contaminants that may impact the removal efficiency of the Carbon Dioxide. A variety of elements as well as dissolved gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A full analytical review of the water chemistry is required to properly design and size the “Water Treatment” process.

Breaking the bonds in water to release a dissolved gas

such as carbon dioxide (CO2) you must change the conditions of the vapor pressure surrounding the gas and allow the gas to be removed.  There are many variables to consider when designing or calculating the “means and methods” of the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). When I refer to the means and methods. I am referring to the design of a decarbonator and its components. The means equals the size and type (Hydraulic load) of the decarbonator and the “method” equals the additional variables such as cubic foot of air flow (CFM) and “Ratio” of the air to water to accomplish the proportional condition needed to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, pH levels of water, aeration, iron oxidation, water treatment, water plant, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, wastewater, carbon dioxide, oxygen, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, removal of CO2 from water

Biological Odor Control Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 4, 2021 9:26:05 AM

A BIOLOGICAL ODOR CONTROL SCRUBBER IS JUST ONE OF MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

To treat air emissions that may contain harmful gases. This class of equipment commonly falls into a category referred to as “Odor Control Scrubbers” and they are utilized to remove dangerous or noxious odors from an air stream. The Biological Odor Control System has gain popularity among many end users such as municipal operators due to the reduced operating cost and more simplistic operating requirements. A typical chemical odor control scrubber often requires two or more chemical additives, and more instrumentation is required to maintain system performance. With the additional chemicals required and instrumentation comes the need for more hands-on maintenance, calibration, and safety requirements which increases the operating costs and workload of the operator.

A Biological Odor Control System relies on active bacteria cultures that recirculate within a water stream and flow across a random packed media bed that is beneficial to the bacteria culture. During the process of metabolizing harmful gases such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) the biological odor control system requires only the addition of Caustic to control and balance the pH and additional water makeup to replace what has been consumed through evaporation or during the blow down process to eliminate solids. There are several different types of odor control and chemical wet scrubbers on the market today and each provide a solution for the treatment of noxious or corrosive gases and odors in the industry.  And even though Biological scrubbers are commonly utilized in municipal applications for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases that were produced by a water or wastewater treatment process there are times when a Biological Scrubber does not provide the best solution for treatment. When there are wide or rapidly changing concentration in the ppm (parts per million) level than a Biological Scrubber will have difficulties balancing and acclimating fast enough to prevent break through.  As an example, In water treatment there is a treatment process referred to as “degasification” which strips the hydrogen sulfide gas from the water and then the concentrated H2S gas is exhausted from the tower through an exhaust port.  When the concentration rises above 1 ppm for hydrogen sulfide gas then the levels become both noxious to the surroundings as well as corrosive. Many times, the levels range from 3-7 PPM in concentration with Hydrogen Sulfide and pose a serious health threat, noxious odor, and corrosive environment demanding capture and treatment. When utilizing an Odor Control Scrubber such as a Biological Scrubber the gases are pulled or pushed through an air duct system that is connected to the Biological Scrubber inlet or suction side of the blower. The same process is utilized when treating Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gases that were captured at a wastewater treatment process. These gases may have been generated from a source such as the wastewater treatment plant, lift station or master head-works facility. When captured the gases are also conveyed in a similar manner to the Biological Odor Control Tower for treatment.

So how does a Biological Scrubber work?

A Biological Odor Control Scrubber is in fact a eco system all to itself. The biological scrubber relies upon an initial seeding of tiny microorganisms (bacteria) which attach themselves to the internal media substrate or packing providing both a place to attach and to breed and multiply all the time coming in direct contact with the contaminated air. The bacteria are utilized to breakdown and digest contaminants, and it feeds on the contaminants as a food source which allows it to not only live but continue to grow and multiply.

When utilizing a Biological Odor Scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment and removal the by-product that is produced during the reaction is a waste in the form of Sulphuric Acid which is produced as the Sulphur is consumed as a food source. The Sulphuric acid waste lowers the pH of the recirculating water and can create an unhealthy 

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, caustic, wastewater, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

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