Pressure Filters

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Dec 3, 2021 1:00:00 PM

In water treatment, it is often required to remove small particulate matter from the raw water. One of the most cost-effective ways to accomplish this is with a pressure filter. Sometimes referred to as “sand filters,” a pressure filter consists of a rigid filter vessel capable of withstanding internal pressure, combined with pipework to distribute and collect water and one or multiple types of filter media. Pressure filters, commonly used in municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, and swimming pools. Typical pressure filter construction is shown below:

At the top of the filter vessel, a distributor is used to break up and distribute the water flow so that there are no concentrated flow jets that stir up the media bed. Inflow distributors are usually oriented to direct flow at the top of the vessel to disperse the flow further. Below the distributor is the primary filter bed. The filter bed contains fine-grained media, most often sand, including crushed anthracite coal, activated charcoal, garnet, or other granular bulk products. The media bed is the thickest layer in the filter vessel and is the region that does the actual filtering of the water or other fluid. Below the media bed will be one or more support layers. These will usually be larger-sized gravel that is chosen to support the filter bed while allowing high flow through the support layer and into the outflow header. The outflow header can take several forms but is often composed of a large central pipe with multiple smaller pipes or “laterals” attached. The laterals are slotted or perforated. This allows the pressurized water to flow into the laterals and out through the outflow header into the downstream components of the water treatment system.

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Topics: particulate matter, filters, Pressure filter, Sand filters, Filter Media, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, residential well water systems, greensand, DeLoach Industries, Inc., backwash, automated control systems, actuated valves, pump controls

Flow Measurement in Water Systems

Posted by Matthew C. Mossman P.E. on Sep 28, 2021 11:45:00 AM

In water treatment systems it is often important to measure the rate at which water is flowing through the system. Data from flow measurement devices can be used to control chemical dosing, set pump speeds, control filter loading rates, inform maintenance programs, and other tasks necessary for operation of a water treatment facility or on key components such as Degasification and Decarbonation systems or Biological Odor Control Systems. As with most types of instrumentation, there is an array of technologies that can be used for the task, each one with various strengths and optimal applications. For modern electronically controlled systems, the most common types of flow sensors used are axial turbine flowmeters, paddlewheel flowmeters, differential pressure / orifice plate flow transducers, and magnetic flowmeters. This article will briefly discuss the technology and features of each of these types.

A turbine flow meter,

consists of a tube that contains supports to hold a multi-bladed metal turbine in the center. The turbine is designed to have close clearance to the walls of the tubing such that nearly all of the water is made to flow through the turbine blades as it travels through the pipe. The turbine is supported on finely finished bearings so that the turbine will spin freely even under very low flows. As the turbine spins, a magnetic pickup located outside of the flowmeter housing is used to sense the tips of the turbine blade spinning past the pickup. An amplifier/transmitter is then used to amplify the pulses and either transmit them directly or convert the pulse frequency into an analog signal that is then sent to a programmable controller for further use elsewhere in the system. One advantage of a turbine flowmeter is that the electronics are separated from the fluid path. The magnetic pickup is the only electronic component, and it is installed outside of the turbine housing, reading the presence of the turbine blade tips through the wall of the sensor body. In clean water applications, this can be advantageous because the magnetic pickup can be replaced if needed without removing the turbine from service. However, the turbine itself covers most of the pipe area and creates back-pressure in the system, requiring increased pumping energy to move a given amount of water. In Industrial Water Treatment or Filtration Treatment,  turbines can also easily become fouled or jammed if they are used to measure water or other fluids with entrained solids, algae or bacteria cultures which cause significant accumulation, or corrosive chemical components that can degrade the turbine bearings.

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Topics: water quality, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, About DeLoach Industries, water plant, pumps, Alkalinity, Safe drinking water, wastewater, Recycling, pharmaceutical water, Aqua Farming, Aquaculture, Pipe Size, municipal water systems, industrial facilities, DeLoach Industries, Inc., actuated valves, pump controls, Drinking Water, Clean Water, Water Test, Water Test Kit, DeLoach Industries, civil engineers

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