DELOACH BLOG

Reverse Osmosis-A walk in time

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:53:00 AM

DeLoach Industries made history in 1977 at the City of Cape Coral Florida water treatment plant with its large scale “degasification towers” connected to what was to become the first municipal water treatment facility in the United States to deploy the use of reverse osmosis on a large-scale production municipal treatment plant.

The Cape Coral water treatment plant for came on line in 1977 and produced 3 million gallons of water per day (GPD) or 11.35 liters of purified and treated water utilizing the “reverse osmosis” process. By 1985 the plant had expanded as it kept up with growth to produce 15 million gallons per day making it at the time the worlds’ largest “reverse osmosis” water treatment plant facility.

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Topics: water quality, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, scaling, chlorine, caustic, Decarbonation, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, RO membrane, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Caustic Scrubber for Sodium Hydroxide

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:51:00 AM

Caustic solution for Sodium hydroxide water treatment

There are many industries that require the use of a caustic scrubber which is considered a chemical scrubber and they range from the municipal industry, mining, semiconductor markets, pulp and paper and chemical refining.  There is a wide variety of industrial processes that generate noxious or corrosive off gases that require treatment and a comparison is made about biological Vs. chemical.  Often biological scrubbers have limitations due to concentrations, composition, or temperature of the contaminants and if the gas stream contains acid fumes then a biological scrubber is quickly ruled out.

The odor control selection is often fraught with choices of capital cost over operational cost and quite often comes down to familiarity from the designer or purchaser.  It is always a good idea to freshen up on the industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s before selecting the final solution.  If the off gas source that needs to be treated is hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or some other type of gas stream produced by an acid or ammonia it will often require neutralization for human health reasons and to protect equipment or may be required to meet regulatory compliance. Caustic scrubbers may be either vertical or horizontal by design, but both utilize a packed media bed of either random packing or trays to allow the gas fumes to meet the recirculating caustic solution which then forces the reaction to occur.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, caustic, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, caustic solution, sodium hydroxide water treatment

Odor Control Selection

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2018 9:03:00 AM

What type of Odor Control Scrubber do I select?

It's a common question many customers and design professionals ask in the Odor Control Industry when selecting, engineering, and deciding on the best odor control process to utilize to treat gases and noxious odors. An odor control system is comparable to choosing a car in many ways because you have many different options. Each odor control scrubber comes in different types to address the different variations within the industry.  For example, odor control scrubbers are designed to treat “ammonia” and other ones to treat “acid” off-gases. Odor control scrubbers utilize “acid” or “caustic” as the scrubbing reagent to neutralize an off gas.

Odor control scrubbers also come with different purchase prices, each with different operating costs.  It is always important to analyze the operating cost of the odor control solution you select because several different types may perform equally. Each may have varying initial purchase costs, but you should ask and understand, “what will the continued operating cost” be for the type of odor control system selected?  And how long will the scrubber I selected last before additional costs are needed for any significant repairs to keep it running? When you are a design professional, if you choose an odor control system that is difficult or expensive to maintain, you can be assured you will have continued phone calls from customers looking for answers and solutions.  

The industry may soon change with the adaption of “artificial intelligence” as AI is slowly incorporated into the market.  Companies like DeLoach Industries are now incorporating the first variation of artificial intelligence into their odor control scrubber line of products to help owners and operators with real-time information and data communications.  Remember that many types of odor control systems work and remove odors, but selecting and designing a system that works efficiently and effectively without breaking the bank can be challenging.  A design professional should evaluate the cost of the reagents utilized in an odor control scrubber at any specific location because the cost of “caustic” in one location may vary from another.  Or the cost of “acid” may have different base costs or handling costs and considerations.  For a design professional and the supplier of the system, it is essential to consider what an owner and or their operators will be faced with to maintain the odor control system over the long term and what the anticipated operating cost will be both on a day to day basis and a long term service replacement basis.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, degasifier, gases

Ammonia Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 2, 2018 9:00:00 AM

The type of Odor Control wet scrubber selected for the treatment and neutralization of Ammonia (NH3) gases depends on several variables, including the type and source of the ammonia gas and whether or not it is “Free” ammonia and or unionized. Ammonia is a very miscible and stable molecule with solid hydrogen bonds, making it very soluble in water and difficult to treat without using a properly designed and sized ammonia scrubber. The concentrations, air flow rates, temperature of the gas stream, and chemical reagents being utilized, such as caustic to remove and then treat the ammonia, all play a significant role in the efficiency of the ammonia scrubber system. Unlike other types of “odor control scrubbers,” an ammonia scrubber is much more sensitive to variables such as the gas stream temperature because of the solubility of ammonia.

  Ammonia is produced from nitrogen and hydrogen 

the process is called the Haber Process by combining nitrogen with air and adding pressure, you can make ammonia. It takes about 200 atmospheres of pressure, and the process varies from refinery to refinery. Still, on average, you can only make approximately 15% of ammonia during each pass which takes multiple passes to achieve the 15%. The reaction to make ammonia is exothermic when produced in a refining process. 

However, ammonia is also formed in nature in smaller quantities. Most ammonia (90%) is utilized for fertilizer production, but ammonia can be found in food, pharmaceutical products, and cleaning supplies. When ammonia gas is released into the air, it has a very noxious and pungent odor that can be dangerous to inhale, so often, odor control scrubbers are required to capture and treat the ammonia gas.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

Industrial Odor Control: The Do’s and Don’ts

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 26, 2018 8:32:00 AM

Avoid problems with calcium chlorite and corrosive gasses with your odor control scrubber.

When planning or designing an odor control system, one should pay close attention to several key variables that can cause havoc on a chemical odor control scrubber when trying to treat hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gases.   The need for odor control occurs in many different forms. It is essential to understand the process that is creating the odorous or corrosive gas and the need for odor control & air emissions treatment.

First, begin to identify

all the potential obstacles that may creep up later after the chemical odor or corrosive gas control system goes online, like acid or caustic consumption. For example, chemical odor control systems designed for water treatment for the municipal industry are typically needed and attached to a degasification or decarbonation process, often needed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, designers often may not pay close enough attention to the type of water process available for “make-up” water for the chemical scrubber. The addition of caustic can create scaling or fouling. This unknown variable of the makeup water quality can lead to a complete tower shutdown if the chemical scrubber distribution and media bed scales or fouls. The most commonly used chemicals for a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) scrubber are either chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite or caustic in the form of caustic soda. Both of these chemicals are common to a water treatment facility and are already in place to adjust and control pH.

The makeup water plays a significant role in the operation of a chemical scrubber.

When water containing high hardness levels is used as the source for the makeup water, your chemical scrubber can become fouled, and scaling can occur in a matter of hours, depending on the alkalinity and salts within the water. Solidification can occur from the scaling when combining sodium hypochlorite and raw feed water at specific pH ranges and these ranges are usually the range needed to achieve peak performance. Calcium chloride will form, and your chemical odor control scrubber will become a solid chunk of calcium chlorite making, making the ability for water or air to pass freely through the media packing next to impossible. No matter what type of media packing is utilized in the odor control or gas scrubber, it can foul and scale if the water chemistry is incorrect.  Trust me when I say “been there and done that”!  I have seen operators who have allowed a chemical scrubber to become out of balance with pH control and completely solidify the tower column to the degree that neither air nor water passage is possible. The problem can still occur with ammonia scrubbers but are different with different sets of parameters.

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Alkalinity, Langilier index (LSI), scaling, chlorine, caustic, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, calcium chlorite

The Basics of Water Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 24, 2018 9:13:00 AM

The water treatment industry has developed and evolved over the years to continue to find new ways to produce degassed water,

with many advances in both the technological methods of treatment as well as the refinement of the existing methods. The evolution of water treatment has been driven by the need for increased demand and over safety standards.

All human cultures on our planet share a 

single commonality and

that is the dependency on water to survive.

Many existing technologies such as “degasification” have evolved with higher efficiency to meet the demand changes and provide safety to consumers and to systems. Degasification refers to the removal of dissolved gases from liquids and the science to degasify water is based upon the “Henry’s Law” or to be exact the “proportionality factor is called the Henry’s law constant” and was developed by William Henry in the early 19th century.

Henry’s Law states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas. The most effective method to perform degasification is with the packed vertical tower called a degasifier or decarbonator. When water enters at the top of the tower it gravity feeds downward across a media bed. The media bed acts to reshape the water over and over again exposing any dissolved gas molecules to the surface of the water droplet.  At the same time that the water is traveling down the interior of the tower an air flow is introduced in a cross current method either by force or by induction that passes over the water droplets and “strips” the gas molecules out of the water. The gases that are stripped then leave the tower through the exhaust at the top of the tower. This is the “basics of water degasification”.

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Topics: water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, safety, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, Global, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, H2S Degasifier, degassed water

Water with Artificial Intelligence

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 12, 2018 9:08:00 AM

Ten years ago if I had purposed that one day our water would have artificial intelligence I think I would have been laughed out of the industry. But now, anything you can imagine with the new electronic revolution is possible because of the current revolution referred to as “The Internet of Things” (IoT). Placing nano size SIP (Systems in a package) into a water stream and tracking its path or location or perform inspections on critical infrastructure or equipment is now a reality.

Water treatment equipment communicating with each other to enhance performance, make adjustments without operator input

is now a reality. The birth of artificial intelligence is changing our lives and how we do business. For the water and wastewater industry it will open new doors, create new challenges such as increased need for cyber security and revolutionize how we think, plan, design, and engineer our future water treatment plants.

For years we have been operating and controlling process water plants and wastewater plants remotely with communication interface devices. We can monitor, turn on, turn off, collect data, and even adjust flow across states or even countries by utilizing communication services both cellular and hard wire.

The safety of our water and power infrastructure is at its peak point of risk and vulnerability from cyber hacking from an outside third uninvited party. Whether a terrorist or a prankster our infrastructure for water, wastewater, and power is our countries lifeblood and without it there would certainly be panic and chaos within days of a cyber-attack.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, phosphate levels, pH levels, Alkalinity, Global, decarbonator, degasifier

Caribbean Water Treatment Challenges

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 24, 2018 12:00:00 AM

Water treatment in the Caribbean offers distant challenges for water professionals. During the design process an engineer must examine multiples aspects of a potential project to ascertain the most cost effective and most sustainable approach. Geographic location can become a major variable during the design selection process. As an example, if the location is remote, too often the shipping of liquid chemicals becomes a challenge as well as the training of operators to safely handle the chemicals during normal operations. The ability to secure trained operators may impact the success or failure of a water treatment process such as membrane separation, reverse osmosis and degasification or decarbonation not to mention odor control.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, odor control scrubber, pH levels, Alkalinity, Recycling, Caribbean, Global

Degasification Basics

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on May 15, 2018 12:00:00 AM

The Term referred to as

“Degasification” or "Decarbonation" and how they work, relates to the process of the removal of suspended gas or solids that are converting to a gas based upon certain criteria during water filtration, treatment, membrane filtration, or attempting to adjust pH.   When removing (CO2) the process is often referred to “Decarbonation”, when removing (H2S) the process is often referred to as “Degasification”. 

Degasification is the most economical method for

the removal of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Oxygen (02) can all be removed by “Degasification”.  The other variables are the total inlet water flow rate, the inlet feed temperature of the water, the ambient air temperature, the inlet concentrations that can be expressed as parts per billion (ppb), parts per million (ppm) or Mg/l, and the desired effluent removal levels also expressed in the same method.  It is also important to fully understand the actual application and the use of the water to determine how critical maintaining critical levels are and what impact variations will create for the final use.   Understanding these variables will aide you in the design of the system and any additional redundant systems needed to assure full compliance with standards.   

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Decarbonation

Removing Hydrogen Sulfide In Water (H2S H2O).

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Apr 30, 2018 12:00:00 AM

Do you need to remove or increase your reverse osmosis system's hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency?

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, Langilier index (LSI), H2S Degasifier, H2S H2O, removing hydrogen sulfide in water

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