DELOACH BLOG

Water Treatment in Aquaculture

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Sep 6, 2018 10:11:28 AM

Water Treatment

When planning and designing a man made on land aquaculture or pisciculture facility.

The most important key element is the quality of the water. For operations developing in Florida or the Caribbean it is important to remember that water quality varies in Florida and other states in the US and typically requires some type of water treatment. For fresh and salt water land based farms that utilize tanks located inside of a building the water needs to be treated and pure from any naturally occurring contaminants such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), iron (Fe+), and even carbon dioxide (CO2).

The most cost effective way to treat incoming water for aquaculture farming and remove hydrogen sulfide, iron, and lower carbon dioxide is the use of a “degasification” tower. A degasification tower or degasifier is a piece of process equipment. Degasifiers can also be referred to as a “decarbonator” or “air stripper” or even “aeration tower”. The degasification tower is a vertical column designed to remove certain types of contaminants by “stripping” the molecules of converted gases and expelling them from the water as a gas. The science is based upon “Henry’s Law” and it relies upon the disproportionate varying vapor pressures of gases.

If the incoming raw water contains levels of sulfides or hydrogen sulfide gases it is recommended to remove the hydrogen sulfide to improve the water quality and reduce the risk of the development and formation of bacteria that can thrive on the Sulfur. In addition hydrogen sulfide is corrosive and will cause harm to other components within the process if left untreated. It is important to adjust the pH of the raw feed water prior to degasification to ensure full conversion of the sulfides into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) to enable the degasification process to perform and remove up to 99.99% of the harmful contaminants without adding additional chemicals. This saves money and improves quality of the product!

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Topics: water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, Decarbonation, Caribbean, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture

Sour Gas Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 28, 2018 12:31:07 PM

The Term Sour Gas

refers to any natural gas or other gas that contains high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The H2S is typically naturally occurring and found in deposits of natural gas and when there are concentrations above 5.7 milligrams per cubic meter or 4 milligrams per cubic meter when tested under standard temperature and pressure. At these levels the industry classifies the gas as “Sour.” Of course there are variations to this classification dependent upon agency an organization.

A Sour gas is not to be confused with an acidic gas 

although one could be both a sour gas is strictly defined by having large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and is usually accompanied by having mercaptans which adds to the foul smell and odor. The term is often used in the oil refinery business and when gases contain sour gas the process to remove the hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans is referred to as “Sweetening”. The most common method to “sweeten” and remove the sour gas is by processing the gas through an “amine process” which removes the harmful gas.

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Topics: odor control, aeration, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, Amine, H2S Degasifier

Reverse Osmosis-A walk in time

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:53:00 AM

DeLoach Industries made history in 1977 at the City of Cape Coral Florida water treatment plant with its large scale “degasification towers” connected to what was to become the first municipal water treatment facility in the United States to deploy the use of reverse osmosis on a large-scale production municipal treatment plant.

The Cape Coral water treatment plant for came on line in 1977 and produced 3 million gallons of water per day (GPD) or 11.35 liters of purified and treated water utilizing the “reverse osmosis” process. By 1985 the plant had expanded as it kept up with growth to produce 15 million gallons per day making it at the time the worlds’ largest “reverse osmosis” water treatment plant facility.

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Topics: water quality, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, scaling, chlorine, caustic, Decarbonation, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, RO membrane, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Caustic Scrubber for Sodium Hydroxide

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:51:00 AM

Caustic solution for Sodium hydroxide water treatment

There are many industries that require the use of a caustic scrubber which is considered a chemical scrubber and they range from the municipal industry, mining, semiconductor markets, pulp and paper and chemical refining.  There is a wide variety of industrial processes that generate noxious or corrosive off gases that require treatment and a comparison is made about biological Vs. chemical.  Often biological scrubbers have limitations due to concentrations, composition, or temperature of the contaminants and if the gas stream contains acid fumes then a biological scrubber is quickly ruled out.

The odor control selection is often fraught with choices of capital cost over operational cost and quite often comes down to familiarity from the designer or purchaser.  It is always a good idea to freshen up on the industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s before selecting the final solution.  If the off gas source that needs to be treated is hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or some other type of gas stream produced by an acid or ammonia it will often require neutralization for human health reasons and to protect equipment or may be required to meet regulatory compliance. Caustic scrubbers may be either vertical or horizontal by design, but both utilize a packed media bed of either random packing or trays to allow the gas fumes to meet the recirculating caustic solution which then forces the reaction to occur.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, caustic, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, caustic solution, sodium hydroxide water treatment

Odor Control Selection

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 16, 2018 9:03:00 AM

What type of Odor Control Scrubber do I select?

It's a common question many customers and design professionals ask in the Odor Control Industry when selecting, engineering, and deciding on the best odor control process to utilize to treat gases and noxious odors. An odor control system is comparable to choosing a car in many ways because you have many different options. Each odor control scrubber comes in different types to address the different variations within the industry.  For example, odor control scrubbers are designed to treat “ammonia” and other ones to treat “acid” off-gases. Odor control scrubbers utilize “acid” or “caustic” as the scrubbing reagent to neutralize an off gas.

Odor control scrubbers also come with different purchase prices, each with different operating costs.  It is always important to analyze the operating cost of the odor control solution you select because several different types may perform equally. Each may have varying initial purchase costs, but you should ask and understand, “what will the continued operating cost” be for the type of odor control system selected?  And how long will the scrubber I selected last before additional costs are needed for any significant repairs to keep it running? When you are a design professional, if you choose an odor control system that is difficult or expensive to maintain, you can be assured you will have continued phone calls from customers looking for answers and solutions.  

The industry may soon change with the adaption of “artificial intelligence” as AI is slowly incorporated into the market.  Companies like DeLoach Industries are now incorporating the first variation of artificial intelligence into their odor control scrubber line of products to help owners and operators with real-time information and data communications.  Remember that many types of odor control systems work and remove odors, but selecting and designing a system that works efficiently and effectively without breaking the bank can be challenging.  A design professional should evaluate the cost of the reagents utilized in an odor control scrubber at any specific location because the cost of “caustic” in one location may vary from another.  Or the cost of “acid” may have different base costs or handling costs and considerations.  For a design professional and the supplier of the system, it is essential to consider what an owner and or their operators will be faced with to maintain the odor control system over the long term and what the anticipated operating cost will be both on a day to day basis and a long term service replacement basis.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, degasifier, gases

Using a Biological Scrubber to treat & remove contaminants

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 9, 2018 8:18:00 AM

A Biological Scrubber is a wet odor control scrubber that treats and removes contaminants from an air stream. It utilizes caustic typically to control the pH of the re-circulation solution. There are several types of odor control and chemical fume scrubbers on the market today. Each plays a role in treating noxious or corrosive gases in the industry.

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Topics: water treatment issues, odor control, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, RO system, H2S Degasifier, what is a scrubber

Odor Control verses Acid Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 6, 2018 9:00:00 AM

When evaluating off gases that need to be treated and prior to the designing of the correct type of odor control system for a project there are several key items that should be considered before making a selection. It is best to read the article called “industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s to refresh or learn a wider prospective on odor control scrubbers and their operational challenges. 

The first question is what is the source of the off gas or odor problem and is it corrosive, dangerous, or just a noxious odor?  A design professional should fully examine what types of contaminants are in the gas air stream to identify harmful and corrosive elements such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), or even caustic (NaOH).   Is the odorous gas that is being generated a result of a “water treatment plant”, “ waste water treatment plant”, “industrial water treatment plant”, or a “manufacturing process” operation,?  Perhaps the odorous gas is being generated from a collection systemsuch as a “lift station” or “head-works” facility?  If the odorous gas is being generated as the result of the removal of hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) from a water treatment process as found at a water treatment plant then the odorous gas can be corrosive, dangerous, and noxious and it will require either treatment utilizing reagent chemicals such as caustic.  The production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) typically is the residual result from treating water and removing the H2S from a water source.   Odor Control E-Book

 

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier

Ammonia Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 2, 2018 9:00:00 AM

The type of Odor Control wet scrubber selected for the treatment and neutralization of Ammonia (NH3) gases depends on several variables, including the type and source of the ammonia gas and whether or not it is “Free” ammonia and or unionized. Ammonia is a very miscible and stable molecule with solid hydrogen bonds, making it very soluble in water and difficult to treat without using a properly designed and sized ammonia scrubber. The concentrations, air flow rates, temperature of the gas stream, and chemical reagents being utilized, such as caustic to remove and then treat the ammonia, all play a significant role in the efficiency of the ammonia scrubber system. Unlike other types of “odor control scrubbers,” an ammonia scrubber is much more sensitive to variables such as the gas stream temperature because of the solubility of ammonia.

  Ammonia is produced from nitrogen and hydrogen 

the process is called the Haber Process by combining nitrogen with air and adding pressure, you can make ammonia. It takes about 200 atmospheres of pressure, and the process varies from refinery to refinery. Still, on average, you can only make approximately 15% of ammonia during each pass which takes multiple passes to achieve the 15%. The reaction to make ammonia is exothermic when produced in a refining process. 

However, ammonia is also formed in nature in smaller quantities. Most ammonia (90%) is utilized for fertilizer production, but ammonia can be found in food, pharmaceutical products, and cleaning supplies. When ammonia gas is released into the air, it has a very noxious and pungent odor that can be dangerous to inhale, so often, odor control scrubbers are required to capture and treat the ammonia gas.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, Ammonia

DeLoach Industries Inc, Celebrates 60 Years!

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 1:24:00 PM

DeLoach Industries was founded in 1959 and is still a family owned and operated business located in Sarasota Florida and to celebrate its 60th years of business has sponsored the

“First Annual Clean Water Professional Appreciation Award"
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BILL-DEL

DeLoach Industries, Inc. is one of the oldest and most trusted O.E.M. that manufactures Water, Wastewater, and Odor Control/Air emission  equipment in the United States.  DeLoach Industries and its founder Walter W. DeLoach (Bill) was a pioneer in the early development first of fiberglass manufacturing which was a relatively new and an unheard of technique.  Bill invented what became one of the first “chop” glass systems for FRP applications in the industry to allow FRP to be utilized for shapes and bends as needed in tanks and towers.  As DeLoach Industries developed the processes, Bill set his focus on the treatment and purification of “Water” and “Wastewater” and “Odor Control” or “Hydrogen Sulfide” treatment.  His interests helped developed the means and methods that are commercially used today in all water treatment facilities

For many of us who grew up in the industry may recall the old slogan “Hey Culligan Man” but may not know that the home aerator commonly sold with the local Culligan dealer and that is still in production today by a wide variety of companies was originally designed and developed and manufactured by DeLoach Industries Inc., or as the Company's name was years ago before Bill changed it to better describe the variety of markets he was serving, was called “DeLoach Plastics”.  Bill DeLoach pioneered and commercialized the home aerator in the early 60’s which catapulted the company into the water and wastewater purification business.

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Topics: degasification, Decarbonation, steam, degasifier

Industrial Boiler Feed Water For Steam

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 10:01:00 AM

Industrial Boiler feed water in water treatment.

In the USA market alone it is estimated the manufacturing industry consumes over 400 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water to produce steam. Approximately 60 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water is sent to the blow down drains in manufacturing. Another approximate 300 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of steam is consumed for direct injection. All this steam required in manufacturing shares the same common need, “water”. But not only water but “purified and treated” water is needed. For without the treatment process US manufacturers would face constant shut downs and increased capital spending driving their cost of goods through the roof. One form of water treatment to protect boilers is degasification and deaeration.

Degasification towers remove

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and quite often dissolved oxygen (DO). Removing dissolved corrosive gases is critical to the life and efficiency of the boiler and if the gases remain in the boiler feed water such as carbon dioxide (CO2) it will create a recipe for disaster, higher operating cost, and a reduced life for the boiler system. The carbon dioxide (CO2) will convert into carbonic acid and form a corrosive condition for the boiler and other critical components. If a boiler system is operating an ion exchange process prior to the boiler the regeneration cost will increase dramatically because the resins will be consumed by the carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition to preserving and increasing the life of the resin the removal of the carbon dioxide (CO2) will elevate the pH of the water without the addition of other chemicals again lowering the operating cost of the system.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, De-Aeration, steam generation, steam generating boilers, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Boiler feed water

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