DELOACH BLOG

Water Treatment in Aquaculture

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Sep 6, 2018 10:11:28 AM

Water Treatment

When planning and designing a man made on land aquaculture or pisciculture facility.

The most important key element is the quality of the water. For operations developing in Florida or the Caribbean it is important to remember that water quality varies in Florida and other states in the US and typically requires some type of water treatment. For fresh and salt water land based farms that utilize tanks located inside of a building the water needs to be treated and pure from any naturally occurring contaminants such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), iron (Fe+), and even carbon dioxide (CO2).

The most cost effective way to treat incoming water for aquaculture farming and remove hydrogen sulfide, iron, and lower carbon dioxide is the use of a “degasification” tower. A degasification tower or degasifier is a piece of process equipment. Degasifiers can also be referred to as a “decarbonator” or “air stripper” or even “aeration tower”. The degasification tower is a vertical column designed to remove certain types of contaminants by “stripping” the molecules of converted gases and expelling them from the water as a gas. The science is based upon “Henry’s Law” and it relies upon the disproportionate varying vapor pressures of gases.

If the incoming raw water contains levels of sulfides or hydrogen sulfide gases it is recommended to remove the hydrogen sulfide to improve the water quality and reduce the risk of the development and formation of bacteria that can thrive on the Sulfur. In addition hydrogen sulfide is corrosive and will cause harm to other components within the process if left untreated. It is important to adjust the pH of the raw feed water prior to degasification to ensure full conversion of the sulfides into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) to enable the degasification process to perform and remove up to 99.99% of the harmful contaminants without adding additional chemicals. This saves money and improves quality of the product!

Read More

Topics: water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, Decarbonation, Caribbean, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, carbonic acid, H2S Degasifier, Aqua Farming, Fish Farming, Aquaculture, Pisciculture

Industrial Boiler Feed Water For Steam

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 10:01:00 AM

Industrial Boiler feed water in water treatment.

In the USA market alone it is estimated the manufacturing industry consumes over 400 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water to produce steam. Approximately 60 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water is sent to the blow down drains in manufacturing. Another approximate 300 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of steam is consumed for direct injection. All this steam required in manufacturing shares the same common need, “water”. But not only water but “purified and treated” water is needed. For without the treatment process US manufacturers would face constant shut downs and increased capital spending driving their cost of goods through the roof. One form of water treatment to protect boilers is degasification and deaeration.

Degasification towers remove

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and quite often dissolved oxygen (DO). Removing dissolved corrosive gases is critical to the life and efficiency of the boiler and if the gases remain in the boiler feed water such as carbon dioxide (CO2) it will create a recipe for disaster, higher operating cost, and a reduced life for the boiler system. The carbon dioxide (CO2) will convert into carbonic acid and form a corrosive condition for the boiler and other critical components. If a boiler system is operating an ion exchange process prior to the boiler the regeneration cost will increase dramatically because the resins will be consumed by the carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition to preserving and increasing the life of the resin the removal of the carbon dioxide (CO2) will elevate the pH of the water without the addition of other chemicals again lowering the operating cost of the system.

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, De-Aeration, steam generation, steam generating boilers, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Boiler feed water

The Basics of Water Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 24, 2018 9:13:00 AM

The water treatment industry has developed and evolved over the years to continue to find new ways to produce degassed water,

with many advances in both the technological methods of treatment as well as the refinement of the existing methods. The evolution of water treatment has been driven by the need for increased demand and over safety standards.

All human cultures on our planet share a 

single commonality and

that is the dependency on water to survive.

Many existing technologies such as “degasification” have evolved with higher efficiency to meet the demand changes and provide safety to consumers and to systems. Degasification refers to the removal of dissolved gases from liquids and the science to degasify water is based upon the “Henry’s Law” or to be exact the “proportionality factor is called the Henry’s law constant” and was developed by William Henry in the early 19th century.

Henry’s Law states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas. The most effective method to perform degasification is with the packed vertical tower called a degasifier or decarbonator. When water enters at the top of the tower it gravity feeds downward across a media bed. The media bed acts to reshape the water over and over again exposing any dissolved gas molecules to the surface of the water droplet.  At the same time that the water is traveling down the interior of the tower an air flow is introduced in a cross current method either by force or by induction that passes over the water droplets and “strips” the gas molecules out of the water. The gases that are stripped then leave the tower through the exhaust at the top of the tower. This is the “basics of water degasification”.

Read More

Topics: water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, safety, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, Global, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, H2S Degasifier, degassed water

Scrubber Pack Media

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 19, 2018 3:53:58 PM
HubSpot Video

Many types of water treatment systems depend on some type of media to provide the best performance required as it relates to water treatment and waste water treatment. For use in reverse osmosis there is a reliance on membranes which act as filters to separate the solids from the water. For ion exchange there are “resins” whether AION or CATION the resins works to treat hard and corrosive water. Degasification and decarbonation towers both require an internal media and sometimes this is referred to as “Random Packing” or “Loose Fill Media” and in this process the media acts like a traffic cop directing traffic.

In this case it directs the water on its way down and through a towers internals where it is constantly reshaping the water droplets over and over again forcing gas molecules to come to the surface edge of the water where they are removed. Carbon filters also require a media which is of course “Carbon”. The carbon media acts like a sponge absorbing the contaminants that you wish to remove from the water until it is saturated and must be replaced or regenerated. Even sand filters or pressure filters require a media.

Read More

Topics: degasification, water treatment, water plant, media packing, Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, wastewater, decarbonator, gases, RO membrane

Water with Artificial Intelligence

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 12, 2018 9:08:00 AM

Ten years ago if I had purposed that one day our water would have artificial intelligence I think I would have been laughed out of the industry. But now, anything you can imagine with the new electronic revolution is possible because of the current revolution referred to as “The Internet of Things” (IoT). Placing nano size SIP (Systems in a package) into a water stream and tracking its path or location or perform inspections on critical infrastructure or equipment is now a reality.

Water treatment equipment communicating with each other to enhance performance, make adjustments without operator input

is now a reality. The birth of artificial intelligence is changing our lives and how we do business. For the water and wastewater industry it will open new doors, create new challenges such as increased need for cyber security and revolutionize how we think, plan, design, and engineer our future water treatment plants.

For years we have been operating and controlling process water plants and wastewater plants remotely with communication interface devices. We can monitor, turn on, turn off, collect data, and even adjust flow across states or even countries by utilizing communication services both cellular and hard wire.

The safety of our water and power infrastructure is at its peak point of risk and vulnerability from cyber hacking from an outside third uninvited party. Whether a terrorist or a prankster our infrastructure for water, wastewater, and power is our countries lifeblood and without it there would certainly be panic and chaos within days of a cyber-attack.

Read More

Topics: degasification, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, phosphate levels, pH levels, Alkalinity, Global, decarbonator, degasifier

Steam Process Water Systems

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 26, 2018 8:06:00 AM

Degasification towers remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and quite often dissolved oxygen (O2).  In process water systems where the water will be used to heat and turn into steam it is critical that the water chemistry be fully understood and a properly designed treatment system utilizing degasification, decarbonation, or deaeration to be applied. Removing dissolved gases is critical to the life and efficiency of the boiler and allowing dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide to remain in the water is a recipe for disaster and reduced life. The (CO2) will convert into carbonic acid and form a corrosive condition for the boiler and other critical components. In addition, the removal of the (CO2) will elevate the pH of the water without the addition of caustics. The selection of what type of degasification tower system should be based on the specific applications, site conditions, and water chemistry. DeLoach Industries understands the many different requirements needed for each individual Industrial Water Treatment system. For more information or to learn more contact the professionals at DeLoach Industries Inc. at (941) 371-4995.

Read More

Topics: De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, steam, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid

Are All Distribution Systems Equal?

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 21, 2018 8:01:00 AM

Do you think all distribution systems are made equal? 

Well if you do you may be surprised that there are a lot of variation in manufacturing protocols in aerators, degasifiers and decarbonators.  Aerators are often found in use at Industrial Water Treatment and municipal water treatment facilities around the globe. 

For water treatment you may be surprised to learn that one of the key items that separate different types of aerators and decarbonators  for water treatment is the type of distribution system it utilizes.  To improve Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) removal you need to select the best distribution system for the tower and make sure its maintained. Now, there are many types of aerators in general and the term is used broadly. From floating pond aerators, to waste water aerators, to vertical tower aerators, decarbonators and degasifiers for industrial water treatment aerators.  We will focus on the vertical tower aerators for industrial water treatment.  All types of Aerators and even degasifiers and even decarbonators and Odor Control Scrubbers require some type of distribution system to begin the process of gas transfer and to remove Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) from water or Carbon Dioxide (CO2).  It is important to evenly distribute the water or chemical solution across the media bed. 

There are several types of distribution systems available and the three most common ones you will see on the market place are the “Tray” type, Weir, or the header lateral utilizing gas release “Nozzles”.   

The selection of what type of distribution system is typically driven from the marketing side of who is selling you the tower.  But in terms of real performance a distribution system utilizing a nozzle system will outperform a tray type distributor.  All packed towers are design utilizing the Henry’s Law Constant” theory of chemistry and what all towers rely upon is some type of method to break the surface tension of the water and expose the molecules of gases so that they either can escape or can be introduced to a reaction agent.

When towers are designed it is important to properly hydraulically load the top of the media bed.  This is Considered " Degasification Basics". This is important for many reasons and we will address these points in future updates.  When using a properly designed nozzle distribution system such as a DeLoach Industries header lateral system then you get the benefit of both proper hydraulic load across the bed but you also gain anywhere from 4-10% of removal efficiency depending upon the application.  When looking at a chemical scrubber verses a biological scrubber you will notice they too have very different distribution systems. DeLoach Industries, Inc. has learned over their 60 years in business how to maximize gas transfer release.  If designed and built properly the gas release process or interaction process (if designing a scrubber) has already began “before” it enters the media bed. 

Read More

Topics: water treatment issues, aeration, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, decarbonator, degasifier

Reduce AMINE Consumption in Water Process Systems

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 19, 2018 8:05:00 AM

Ammonia (AM) is a common water pollutant that significantly impacts the water process industry. It is not just polluting water bodies but also aqua wells and humidifiers. Generally, AM is produced from human sweat and urine and created from synthetic ammonia in industrial process systems.

Ammonia has three types of amines – primary, secondary, and tertiary – all are toxic for humans and aquatic life.


  • Primary Amine has two carbon and one nitrogen atom also called methylamine or CHNH2.
  • Secondary Amine has two nitrogen atoms with no carbon atom between them, also called Dimethylamine or CH2(NH)CH3.
  • Tertiary Amine has three nitrogen atoms with no carbon atoms between them; thus, it’s called Trimethylamine or CH3C(NH)CH3.

In natural conditions, primary Amide bacteria produce Amide under high-temperature conditions. In an aqueous solution and soil environments with high pH levels (>6).

Primary amide can form by the dehydrogenation of nitriles, such as acetonitrile, which are further oxidized to form acetic acid. 

Primary amide form by alkaline hydrolysis of nitro compounds such as 2-nitrophenol.

Process systems often need to recognize when the Degasification or Decarbonation system is failing or underperforming.

Read More

Topics: Decarbonation, decarbonator, degasifier, Amine, Ammonia, Deagasification, Filter Media, distribution system, blower motor, process system, frequent inspections

Deaeration Vs. Decarbonation

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 14, 2018 8:00:00 AM

The term De-Aeration refers to a specific process utilized to remove carbon dioxide as well as dissolved oxygen from a water stream. Typically associated with boiler feed water systems and utilized as a method to remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen (O2) from the water prior to entering the boiler. The Decarbonation system also removes Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the water and typically does not target the removal of Oxygen (O2). A De-Aeration system utilizes steam which enters at the bottom of the tower. The inlet feed water is heated, as close to saturation temperature as possible utilizing a minimum pressure drop and a limit on the vent. This ensures the best thermal operating efficiency of the tower.

Read More

Topics: media packing, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, steam, decarbonator

Saving Steam With Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 5, 2018 12:00:00 AM

At most, business operations that utilize steam there is an awareness of both the potential short supply as well as the ongoing operating cost to produce the steam. Steam is utilized from simple task of heating buildings and pipes to more complex operations like distillation for use with the food and beverage markets or pharmaceutical industry. Oil refineries desperately depend on steam and is part of their key foundation of their operation.

When designing a system it helps to reduce the need for steam whenever possible, by selecting water treatment processes that are not dependent on steam such as a “Decarbonator”.

Read More

Topics: degasification, Decarbonation, steam generation, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, distillation

Subscribe to our blog

Recent Posts