DELOACH BLOG

Reverse Osmosis-A walk in time

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:53:00 AM

DeLoach Industries made history in 1977 at the City of Cape Coral Florida water treatment plant with its large scale “degasification towers” connected to what was to become the first municipal water treatment facility in the United States to deploy the use of reverse osmosis on a large-scale production municipal treatment plant.

The Cape Coral water treatment plant for came on line in 1977 and produced 3 million gallons of water per day (GPD) or 11.35 liters of purified and treated water utilizing the “reverse osmosis” process. By 1985 the plant had expanded as it kept up with growth to produce 15 million gallons per day making it at the time the worlds’ largest “reverse osmosis” water treatment plant facility.

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Topics: water quality, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), pH levels, Alkalinity, scaling, chlorine, caustic, Decarbonation, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, RO membrane, RO system, H2S Degasifier

Caustic Scrubber for Sodium Hydroxide

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 21, 2018 8:51:00 AM

Caustic solution for Sodium hydroxide water treatment

There are many industries that require the use of a caustic scrubber which is considered a chemical scrubber and they range from the municipal industry, mining, semiconductor markets, pulp and paper and chemical refining.  There is a wide variety of industrial processes that generate noxious or corrosive off gases that require treatment and a comparison is made about biological Vs. chemical.  Often biological scrubbers have limitations due to concentrations, composition, or temperature of the contaminants and if the gas stream contains acid fumes then a biological scrubber is quickly ruled out.

The odor control selection is often fraught with choices of capital cost over operational cost and quite often comes down to familiarity from the designer or purchaser.  It is always a good idea to freshen up on the industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s before selecting the final solution.  If the off gas source that needs to be treated is hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or some other type of gas stream produced by an acid or ammonia it will often require neutralization for human health reasons and to protect equipment or may be required to meet regulatory compliance. Caustic scrubbers may be either vertical or horizontal by design, but both utilize a packed media bed of either random packing or trays to allow the gas fumes to meet the recirculating caustic solution which then forces the reaction to occur.

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Topics: water treatment issues, water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, pH levels, caustic, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, caustic solution, sodium hydroxide water treatment

Using a Biological Scrubber to treat & remove contaminants

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 9, 2018 8:18:00 AM

A Biological Scrubber is a wet odor control scrubber that treats and removes contaminants from an air stream. It utilizes caustic typically to control the pH of the re-circulation solution. There are several types of odor control and chemical fume scrubbers on the market today. Each plays a role in treating noxious or corrosive gases in the industry.

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Topics: water treatment issues, odor control, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, wastewater, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, RO system, H2S Degasifier, what is a scrubber

Odor Control verses Acid Scrubber

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Aug 6, 2018 9:00:00 AM

When evaluating off gases that need to be treated and prior to the designing of the correct type of odor control system for a project there are several key items that should be considered before making a selection. It is best to read the article called “industrial odor control the do’s and don’t’s to refresh or learn a wider prospective on odor control scrubbers and their operational challenges. 

The first question is what is the source of the off gas or odor problem and is it corrosive, dangerous, or just a noxious odor?  A design professional should fully examine what types of contaminants are in the gas air stream to identify harmful and corrosive elements such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), or even caustic (NaOH).   Is the odorous gas that is being generated a result of a “water treatment plant”, “ waste water treatment plant”, “industrial water treatment plant”, or a “manufacturing process” operation,?  Perhaps the odorous gas is being generated from a collection systemsuch as a “lift station” or “head-works” facility?  If the odorous gas is being generated as the result of the removal of hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) from a water treatment process as found at a water treatment plant then the odorous gas can be corrosive, dangerous, and noxious and it will require either treatment utilizing reagent chemicals such as caustic.  The production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) typically is the residual result from treating water and removing the H2S from a water source.   Odor Control E-Book

 

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, biological scrubber, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, dissolved gases, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier

Industrial Boiler Feed Water For Steam

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 31, 2018 10:01:00 AM

Industrial Boiler feed water in water treatment.

In the USA market alone it is estimated the manufacturing industry consumes over 400 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water to produce steam. Approximately 60 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of water is sent to the blow down drains in manufacturing. Another approximate 300 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of steam is consumed for direct injection. All this steam required in manufacturing shares the same common need, “water”. But not only water but “purified and treated” water is needed. For without the treatment process US manufacturers would face constant shut downs and increased capital spending driving their cost of goods through the roof. One form of water treatment to protect boilers is degasification and deaeration.

Degasification towers remove

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and quite often dissolved oxygen (DO). Removing dissolved corrosive gases is critical to the life and efficiency of the boiler and if the gases remain in the boiler feed water such as carbon dioxide (CO2) it will create a recipe for disaster, higher operating cost, and a reduced life for the boiler system. The carbon dioxide (CO2) will convert into carbonic acid and form a corrosive condition for the boiler and other critical components. If a boiler system is operating an ion exchange process prior to the boiler the regeneration cost will increase dramatically because the resins will be consumed by the carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition to preserving and increasing the life of the resin the removal of the carbon dioxide (CO2) will elevate the pH of the water without the addition of other chemicals again lowering the operating cost of the system.

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Topics: water treatment issues, degasification, iron oxidation, water treatment, water distribution system, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Decarbonation, ION Exchange Resin, feed water, De-Aeration, steam generation, steam generating boilers, carbon dioxide, steam, decarbonator, boiler system, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system, H2S Degasifier, Boiler feed water

Industrial Odor Control: The Do’s and Don’ts

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 26, 2018 8:32:00 AM

Avoid problems with calcium chlorite and corrosive gasses with your odor control scrubber.

When planning or designing an odor control system, one should pay close attention to several key variables that can cause havoc on a chemical odor control scrubber when trying to treat hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gases.   The need for odor control occurs in many different forms. It is essential to understand the process that is creating the odorous or corrosive gas and the need for odor control & air emissions treatment.

First, begin to identify

all the potential obstacles that may creep up later after the chemical odor or corrosive gas control system goes online, like acid or caustic consumption. For example, chemical odor control systems designed for water treatment for the municipal industry are typically needed and attached to a degasification or decarbonation process, often needed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, designers often may not pay close enough attention to the type of water process available for “make-up” water for the chemical scrubber. The addition of caustic can create scaling or fouling. This unknown variable of the makeup water quality can lead to a complete tower shutdown if the chemical scrubber distribution and media bed scales or fouls. The most commonly used chemicals for a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) scrubber are either chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite or caustic in the form of caustic soda. Both of these chemicals are common to a water treatment facility and are already in place to adjust and control pH.

The makeup water plays a significant role in the operation of a chemical scrubber.

When water containing high hardness levels is used as the source for the makeup water, your chemical scrubber can become fouled, and scaling can occur in a matter of hours, depending on the alkalinity and salts within the water. Solidification can occur from the scaling when combining sodium hypochlorite and raw feed water at specific pH ranges and these ranges are usually the range needed to achieve peak performance. Calcium chloride will form, and your chemical odor control scrubber will become a solid chunk of calcium chlorite making, making the ability for water or air to pass freely through the media packing next to impossible. No matter what type of media packing is utilized in the odor control or gas scrubber, it can foul and scale if the water chemistry is incorrect.  Trust me when I say “been there and done that”!  I have seen operators who have allowed a chemical scrubber to become out of balance with pH control and completely solidify the tower column to the degree that neither air nor water passage is possible. The problem can still occur with ammonia scrubbers but are different with different sets of parameters.

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Topics: odor control, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, biological scrubber, water plant, odor control scrubber, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), calcium carbonate, media packing, pH levels, Alkalinity, Langilier index (LSI), scaling, chlorine, caustic, ION Exchange Resin, Safe drinking water, dissolved gases, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, degasifier, gases, H2S Degasifier, calcium chlorite

The Basics of Water Degasification

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jul 24, 2018 9:13:00 AM

The water treatment industry has developed and evolved over the years to continue to find new ways to produce degassed water,

with many advances in both the technological methods of treatment as well as the refinement of the existing methods. The evolution of water treatment has been driven by the need for increased demand and over safety standards.

All human cultures on our planet share a 

single commonality and

that is the dependency on water to survive.

Many existing technologies such as “degasification” have evolved with higher efficiency to meet the demand changes and provide safety to consumers and to systems. Degasification refers to the removal of dissolved gases from liquids and the science to degasify water is based upon the “Henry’s Law” or to be exact the “proportionality factor is called the Henry’s law constant” and was developed by William Henry in the early 19th century.

Henry’s Law states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas. The most effective method to perform degasification is with the packed vertical tower called a degasifier or decarbonator. When water enters at the top of the tower it gravity feeds downward across a media bed. The media bed acts to reshape the water over and over again exposing any dissolved gas molecules to the surface of the water droplet.  At the same time that the water is traveling down the interior of the tower an air flow is introduced in a cross current method either by force or by induction that passes over the water droplets and “strips” the gas molecules out of the water. The gases that are stripped then leave the tower through the exhaust at the top of the tower. This is the “basics of water degasification”.

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Topics: water quality, degasification, pH levels of water, water treatment, advanced treatment solutions, water plant, safety, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Chemical Odor, media packing, pH levels, Decarbonation, dissolved gases, wastewater, Global, carbon dioxide, decarbonator, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, H2S Degasifier, degassed water

Steam Process Water Systems

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 26, 2018 8:06:00 AM

Degasification towers remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and quite often dissolved oxygen (O2).  In process water systems where the water will be used to heat and turn into steam it is critical that the water chemistry be fully understood and a properly designed treatment system utilizing degasification, decarbonation, or deaeration to be applied. Removing dissolved gases is critical to the life and efficiency of the boiler and allowing dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide to remain in the water is a recipe for disaster and reduced life. The (CO2) will convert into carbonic acid and form a corrosive condition for the boiler and other critical components. In addition, the removal of the (CO2) will elevate the pH of the water without the addition of caustics. The selection of what type of degasification tower system should be based on the specific applications, site conditions, and water chemistry. DeLoach Industries understands the many different requirements needed for each individual Industrial Water Treatment system. For more information or to learn more contact the professionals at DeLoach Industries Inc. at (941) 371-4995.

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Topics: De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, steam, decarbonator, degasifier, carbonic acid

Deaeration Vs. Decarbonation

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 14, 2018 8:00:00 AM

The term De-Aeration refers to a specific process utilized to remove carbon dioxide as well as dissolved oxygen from a water stream. Typically associated with boiler feed water systems and utilized as a method to remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen (O2) from the water prior to entering the boiler. The Decarbonation system also removes Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the water and typically does not target the removal of Oxygen (O2). A De-Aeration system utilizes steam which enters at the bottom of the tower. The inlet feed water is heated, as close to saturation temperature as possible utilizing a minimum pressure drop and a limit on the vent. This ensures the best thermal operating efficiency of the tower.

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Topics: media packing, Decarbonation, De-Aeration, carbon dioxide, oxygen, steam, decarbonator

How To Protect Your Pharmaceutical Water

Posted by Anthony DeLoach, President on Jun 12, 2018 12:00:00 AM

The need to remove dissolved gases from water in the pharmaceutical process is well known within the water treatment industry. However, the method of removing the gases varies and depending on the quality of the water a wrong selection can wreak havoc on your process water equipment, such as the steam boiler or distillation columns. If the water contains high levels of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) than it can form carbonic acid which will attack and corrode both the steam boiler tubes as well as the distillation columns. Removing the dissolved gases by adding a Degasification tower or “Degasifier” will ensure that the dissolved gases like Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) have been removed to acceptable levels of below 7 ppb.  Also utilizing a degasification tower is the most cost-effective way to reduce and eliminate the gases in the water stream, R.O. membranes are used to and require pH adjustment to achieve the same results because of the need to convert the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into carbonates first.

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Topics: degasification, water treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dissolved gases, pharmaceutical water, carbon dioxide, degasifier, gases, RO membrane, carbonic acid, RO system

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